protokol tambahan 1 (english version)

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1)
Adopted on 8 June 1977 by the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armned Conflicts
entry into force 7 December 1979, in accordance with Article 95
Preamble
The High Contracting Parties,
Proclaiming their earnest wish to see peace prevail among peoples,
Recalling that every State has the duty, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
Believing it necessary nevertheless to reaffirm and develop the provisions protecting the victims of armed conflicts and to supplement measures intended to reinforce their application,
Expressing their conviction that nothing in this Protocol or in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 can be construed as legitimizing or authorizing any act of aggression or any other use of force inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations,
Reaffirming further that the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and of this Protocol must be fully applied in all circumstances to all persons who are protected by those instruments, without any adverse distinction based on the nature or origin of the armed conflict or on the causes espoused by or attributed to the Parties to the conflicts,
Have agreed on the following:
PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1.-General principles and scope of application
1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for this Protocol in all circumstances.
2. In cases not covered by this Protocol or by other international agreements, civilians and combatants remain under the protection and authority of the principles of international law derived from established custom, from the principles of humanity and from the dictates of public conscience.
3. This Protocol, which supplements the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the protection of war victims, shall apply in the situations referred to in Article 2 common to those Conventions.
4. The situations referred to in the preceding paragraph include armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes in the exercise of their right of self-determination, as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Article 2.-Definitions
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) “First Convention”, “Second Convention”, “Third Convention” and “Fourth Convention” mean, respectively, the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949; the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August 1949; the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949; the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949; “the Conventions” means the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949; for the protection of war victims;
(b) ”Rules of international law applicable in armed conflict” means the rules applicable in armed conflict set forth in international agreements to which the Parties to the conflict are Parties and the generally recognized principles and rules of international law which are applicable to armed conflict;
(c) ”Protecting Power” means a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict which has been designated by a Party to the conflict and accepted by the adverse Party and has agreed to carry out the functions assigned to a Protecting Power under the Conventions and this Protocol;
(d) ”Substitute” means an organization acting in place of a Protecting Power in accordance with Article 5.

Article 3.-Beginning and end of application
Without prejudice to the provisions which are applicable at all times:
(a) The Conventions and this Protocol shall apply from the beginning of any situation referred to in Article 1 of this Protocol;
(b) The application of the Conventions and of this Protocol shall cease, in the territory of Parties to the conflict, on the general close of military operations and, in the case of occupied territories, on the termination of the occupation, except, in either circumstance, for those persons whose final release, repatriation or re-establishment takes place thereafter. These persons shall continue to benefit from the relevant provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol until their final release, repatriation or re-establishment.

Article 4.-Legal status of the Parties to the conflict
The application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, as well as the conclusion of the agreements provided for therein, shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict. Neither the occupation of a territory nor the application of the Conventions and this Protocol shall affect the legal status of the territory in question.

Article 5.-Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute
1. It is the duty of the Parties to a conflict from the beginning of that conflict to secure the supervision and implementation of the Conventions and of this Protocol by the application of the system of Protecting Powers, including inter alia the designation and acceptance of those Powers, in accordance with the following paragraphs. Protecting Powers shall have the duty of safeguarding the interests of the Parties to the conflict.
2. From the beginning of a situation referred to in Article each Party to the conflict shall without delay designate a Protecting Power for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol and shall, likewise without delay and for the same purpose, permit the activities of a Protecting Power which has been accepted by it as such after designation by the adverse Party.
3. If a Protecting Power has not been designated or accepted from the beginning of a situation referred to in Article 1, the International Committee
of the Red Cross, without prejudice to the right of any other impartial humanitarian organization to do likewise, shall offer its good offices to the Parties to the conflict with a view to the designation without delay of a Protecting Power to which the Parties to the conflict consent. For that purpose it may, inter alia, ask each Party to provide it with a list of at least five States which that Party
considers acceptable to act as Protecting Power on its behalf in relation to an adverse Party, and ask each adverse Party to provide a list of at least five States which it would accept as the Protecting Power of the first Party; these lists shall be communicated to the Committee within two weeks after the receipt of the request; it shall compare them and seek the agreement of any proposed State named on both lists.
4. If, despite the foregoing, there is no Protecting Power, the Parties to the conflict shall accept without delay an offer which may be made by the International Committee of the Red Cross or by any other organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy, after due consultations with the said Parties and taking into account the result of these consultations, to act as a substitute. The functioning of such a substitute is subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict; every effort shall be made by the Parties to the conflict to facilitate the operations of the substitute in the performance of its tasks under the Conventions and this Protocol.
5. In accordance with Article 4, the designation and acceptance of Protecting Powers for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict or of any territory, including occupied territory.
6. The maintenance of diplomatic relations between Parties to the conflict or the entrusting of the protection of a Party’s interests and those of its nationals to a third State in accordance with the rules of international law relating to diplomatic relations is no obstacle to the designation of Protecting Powers for the purpose of applying the Conventions and this Protocol.
7. Any subsequent mention in this Protocol of a Protecting Power includes also a substitute.

Article 6.-Qualified persons
1. The High Contracting Parties shall, also in peacetime, endeavour, with the assistance of the national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, to train qualified personnel to facilitate the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, and in particular the activities of the Protecting Powers.
2. The recruitment and training of such personnel are within domestic jurisdiction.
3. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall hold at the disposal of the High Contracting Parties the lists of persons so trained which
the High Contracting Parties may have established and may have transmitted to it for that purpose.
4. The conditions governing the employment of such personnel outside the national territory shall, in each case, be the subject of special agreements between the Parties concerned.

Article 7.-Meetings
The depositary of this Protocol shall convene a meeting of the High Contracting Parties, at the request of one or more of the said Parties and upon the approval of the majority of the said Parties, to consider general problems concerning the application of the Conventions and of the Protocol.

PART II
WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED
SECTION I.-GENERAL PROTECTION

Article 8.-Terminology
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) “Wounded” and “sick” mean persons, whether military or civilian, who, because of trauma, disease or other physical or mental disorder or disability, are in need of medical assistance or care and who refrain from any act of hostility. These terms also cover maternity cases, new-born babies and other persons who may be in need of immediate medical assistance or care, such as the infirm or expectant mothers, and who refrain from any act of hostility;
(b) ”Shipwrecked” means persons, whether military or civilian, who are in peril at sea or in other waters as a result of misfortune affecting them or the vessel or aircraft carrying them and who refrain from any act of hostility. These persons, provided that they continue to refrain from any act of hostility, shall continue to be considered shipwrecked during their rescue until they acquire another status under the Conventions or this Protocol;
(c) “Medical personnel” means those persons assigned, by a Party to the conflict, exclusively to the medical purposes enumerated under subparagraph (e) or to the administration of medical units or to the operation or administration of medical transports. Such assignments may be either permanent or temporary. The term includes:
(i) Medical personnel of a Party to the conflict, whether military or civilian, including those described in the First and Second Conventions, and those assigned to civil defence organizations;
(ii) Medical personnel of national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies and other national voluntary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by a Party to the conflict;
(iii) Medical personnel of medical units or medical transports described in Article 9, paragraph 2;
(d) “Religious personnel” means military or civilian persons, such as chaplains, who are exclusively engaged in the work of their ministry and attached:
(i) To the armed forces of a Party to the conflict;
(ii) To medical units or medical transports of a Party to the conflict;
(iii) To medical units or medical transports described in Article 9, paragraph 2; or
(iv) To civil defence organizations of a Party to the conflict.
The attachment of religious personnel may be either permanent or temporary, and the relevant provisions mentioned under sub-paragraph (k) apply to them;
(e) “Medical units” means establishments and other units, whether military or civilian, organized for medical purposes, namely the search for, collection, transportation, diagnosis or treatment-including first-aid treatment-of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or for the prevention of disease. The term includes, for example, hospitals and other similar units, blood transfusion centres, preventive medicine centres and institutes, medical depots and the medical and pharmaceutical stores of such units. Medical units may be fixed or mobile, permanent or temporary;
(g) ‘Medical transportation” means the conveyance by land, water or air of the wounded, sick, shipwrecked, medical personnel, religious personnel, medical equipment or medical supplies protected by the Conventions and by this Protocol;
(g) “Medical transports” means any means of transportation. whether military or civilian, permanent or temporary, as signed exclusively to medical transportation and under the control of a competent authority of a Party to the conflict;
(h) ”Medical vehicles” means any medical transports by land;
(i) “Medical ships and craft” means any medical transports by water;
(j) “Medical aircraft” means any medical transports by air;
(k) “Permanent medical personnel”, “permanent medical units” and “permanent medical transports” mean those assigned exclusively to medical purposes for an indeterminate period. ”Temporary medical personnel”, “temporary medical units” and “temporary medical transports” mean those devoted exclusively to medical purposes for limited periods during the whole of such periods. Unless otherwise specified, the terms ”medical personnel”, ” medical units” and “medical transports” cover both permanent and temporary categories;
(I) “Distinctive emblem” means the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun on a white ground when used for the protection of medical units and transports, or medical and religious personnel, equipment or supplies;
(m) ”Distinctive signal” means any signal or message specified for the identification exclusively of medical units or transports in Chapter III of Annex I to this Protocol.

Article 9.-Field of application
1. This Part, the provisions of which are intended to ameliorate the condition of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, shall apply to all those affected by a situation referred to in Article 1, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria.
2. The relevant provisions of Articles 27 and 32 of the First Convention shall apply to permanent medical units and transports (other than hospital ships, to which Article 25 of the Second Convention applies) and their personnel made available to a Party to the conflict for humanitarian purposes:
(a) By a neutral or other State which is not a Party to that conflict;
(b) By a recognized and authorized aid society of such a State;
(c) By an impartial international humanitarian organization.

Article 10.-Protection and care
1. All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to whichever Party they belong, shall be respected and protected.
2. In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall receive, to the fullest extent practicable and with the least possible delay, the medical care and attention required by their condition. There shall be no distinction among them founded on any grounds other than medical ones.

Article 11.-Protection of persons
1. The physical or mental health and integrity of persons who are in the power of the adverse Party or who are interned, detained or otherwise deprived of liberty as a result of a situation referred to in Article I shall not be endangered by any unjustified act or omission. Accordingly, it is prohibited to subject the persons described in this Article to any medical procedure which is not indicated by the state of health of the person concerned and which is not consistent with generally accepted medical standards which would be applied under similar medical circumstances to persons who are nationals of the Party conducting the procedure and who are in no way deprived of liberty.
2. It is, in particular, prohibited to carry out on such persons, even with their consent:
(a) Physical mutilations;
(b) Medical or scientific experiments;
(c) Removal of tissue or organs for transplantation,
except where these acts are justified in conformity with the conditions provided for in paragraph 1.
3. Exceptions to the prohibition in paragraph 2 (c) may be made only in the case of donations of blood for transfusion or of skin for grafting, provided that they are given voluntarily and without any coercion or inducement, and then only for therapeutic purposes, under conditions consistent with generally accepted medical standards and controls designed for the benefit of both the donor and the recipient.
4. Any wilful act or omission which seriously endangers the physical or mental health or integrity of any person who is in the power of a Party other than the one on which he depends and which either violates any of the prohibitions in paragraphs 1 and 2 or fails to comply with the requirements of paragraph 3 shall be a grave breach of this Protocol.
5. The persons described in paragraph I have the right to refuse any surgical operation. In case of refusal, medical personnel shall endeavour to obtain a written statement to that effect, signed or acknowledged by the patient.
6. Each Party to the conflict shall keep a medical record for every donation of blood for transfusion or skin for grafting by persons referred to in paragraph 1, if that donation is made under the responsibility of that Party. In addition, each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to keep a record of all medical procedures undertaken with respect to any person who is interned, detained or otherwise
deprived of liberty as a result of a situation referred to in Article 1. These records shall be available at all times for inspection by the Protecting Power.

Article 12.-Protection of medical units
1. Medical units shall be respected and protected at all times and shall not be the object of attack.
2. Paragraph I shall apply to civilian medical units, provided that they:
(a) Belong to one of the Parties to the conflict;
(b) Are recognized and authorized by the competent authority of one of the Parties to the conflict; or
(c) Are authorized in conformity with Article 9, paragraph 2, of this Protocol or Article 27 of the First Convention.
3. The Parties to the conflict are invited to notify each other of the location of their fixed medical units. The absence of such notification shall not exempt any of the Parties from the obligation to comply with the provisions of paragraph 1.
4. Under no circumstances shall medical units be used in an attempt to shield military objectives from attack. Whenever possible, the Parties to the conflict shall ensure that medical units are so sated that attacks against military objectives do not imperil their safety.

Article 13.-Discontinuance of protection of civilian medical units
1. The protection to which civilian medical units are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian function, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after a warning has been given setting, whenever appropriate, a reasonable time-limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.
2. The following shall not be considered as acts harmful to the enemy;
(a) That the personnel of the unit are equipped with light individual weapons for their own defence or for that of the wounded and sick in their charge;
(b) That the unit is guarded by a picket or by sentries or by an escort;
(c) That small arms and ammunition taken from the wounded and sick, and not yet handed to the proper service, are found in the units;
(d) That members of the armed forces or other combatants are in the unit for medical reasons.

Article 14.-Limitations on requisition of civilian medical units
1. The Occupying Power has the duty to ensure that the medical needs of the civilian population in occupied territory continue to be satisfied.
2. The Occupying Power shall not, therefore, requisition civilian medical units, their equipment, their mat‚riel or the services of their personnel, so long as these resources are necessary for the provision of adequate medical services for the civilian population and for the continuing medical care of any wounded and sick already under treatment.
3. Provided that the general rule in paragraph 2 continues to be observed, the Occupying Power may requisition the said resources, subject to the following particular conditions:
(a) That the resources are necessary for the adequate and immediate medical treatment of the wounded and sick members of the armed forces of the Occupying Power or of prisoners of war;
(b) That the requisition continues only while such necessity exists; and
(c) That immediate arrangements are made to ensure that the medical needs of the civilian population, as well as those of any wounded and sick under treatment who are affected by the requisition, continue to be satisfied.

Article 15.-Protection of civilian medical and religious personnel
1. Civilian medical personnel shall be respected and protected.
2. If needed, all available help shall be afforded to civilian medical personnel in an area where civilian medical services are disrupted by reason of combat activity.
3. The Occupying Power shall afford civilian medical personnel in occupied territories every assistance to enable them to perform, to the best of their ability, their humanitarian functions. The Occupying Power may not require that, in the performance of those functions, such personnel shall give priority to the treatment of any person except on medical grounds. They shall not be compelled to carry out tasks which are not compatible with their humanitarian mission.
4. Civilian medical personnel shall have access to any place where their services are essential, subject to such supervisory and safety measures as the relevant Party to the conflict may deem necessary.
5. Civilian religious personnel shall be respected and protected. The provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol concerning the protection and identification of medical personnel shall apply equally to such persons.

Article 16.-General protection of medical duties
1. Under no circumstances shall any person be punished for carrying out medical activities compatible with medical ethics, regardless of the person benefiting therefrom.
2. Persons engaged in medical activities shall not be compelled to perform acts or to carry out work contrary to the rules of medical ethics or to other medical rules designed for the benefit of the wounded and sick or to the provisions of the Conventions or of this Protocol, or to refrain from performing acts or from carrying out work required by those rules and provisions.
3. No person engaged in medical activities shall be compelled to give to anyone belonging either to an adverse Party, or to his own Party except as required by the law of the latter Party, any information concerning the wounded and sick who are, or who have been, under his care, if such information would, in his opinion, prove harmful to the patients concerned or to their families. Regulations for the compulsory notification of communicable diseases shall, however, be respected.

Article 17.-Role of the civilian population and of aid societies
1. The civilian population shall respect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even if they belong to the adverse Party, and shall commit no act of violence against them. The civilian population and aid societies, such as national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies, shall be permitted, even on their own initiative, to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, even in invaded or occupied areas. No one shall be harmed, prosecuted, convicted or punished for such humanitarian acts.
2. The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the civilian population and the aid societies referred to in paragraph 1 to collect and care for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, and to search for the dead and report their location; they shall grant both protection and the necessary facilities to those who respond to this appeal. If the adverse Party gains or regains control of the area, that Party also shall afford the same protection and facilities for so long as they are needed.

Article 18.-Identification
1. Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that medical and religious personnel and medical units and transports are identifiable.
2. Each Party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt and to implement methods and procedures which will make it possible to recognize medical units and transports which use the distinctive emblem and distinctive signals.
3. In occupied territory and in areas where fighting is taking place or is likely to take place, civilian medical personnel and civilian religious personnel should be recognizable by the distinctive emblem and an identity card certifying their status.
4. With the consent of the competent authority, medical units and transports shall be marked by the distinctive emblem. The ships and craft referred to in Article 22 of this Protocol shall be marked in accordance with the provisions of the Second Convention.
5. In addition to the distinctive emblem, a Party to the conflict may, as provided in Chapter III of Annex I to this Protocol, authorize the use of distinctive signals to identify medical units and transports. Exceptionally, in the special cases covered in that Chapter, medical transports may use distinctive signals without displaying the distinctive emblem.
6. The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 5 of this Article is governed by Chapters I to m of Annex I to this Protocol. Signals designated in Chapter m of the Annex for the exclusive use of medical units and transports shall not, except as provided therein, be used for any purpose other than to identify the medical units and transports specified in that Chapter.
7. This Article does not authorize any wider use of the distinctive emblem in peacetime than is prescribed in Article 44 of the First Convention.
8. The provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol relating to supervision of the use of the distinctive emblem and to the prevention and repression of any misuse thereof shall be applicable to distinctive signals .

Article 19.-Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict
Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict shall apply the relevant provisions of this Protocol to persons protected by this Part who may be received or interned within their territory, and to any dead of the Parties to that conflict whom they may find.

Article 20.-Prohibition of reprisals
Reprisals against the persons and objects protected by this Part are prohibited.

SECTION II.-MEDICAL TRANSPORTATION

Article 21.-Medical vehicles
Medical vehicles shall be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units under the Conventions and this Protocol.

Article 22.-Hospitals ships and coastal rescue craft
1. The provisions of the Conventions relating to:
(a) Vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 of the Second Convention,
(b) Their lifeboats and small craft,
(c) Their personnel and crews; and
(d) The wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board, shall also apply where these vessels carry civilian wounded, sick and shipwrecked who do not belong to any of the categories mentioned in Article 13 of the Second Convention. Such civilians shall not, however, be subject to surrender to any Party which is not their own, or to capture at sea. If they find themselves in the power of a Party to the conflict other than their own they shall be covered by the Fourth Convention and by this Protocol.
2. The protection provided by the Conventions to vessels described in Article 25 of the Second Convention shall extend to hospital ships made available for humanitarian purposes to a Party to the conflict:
(a) By a neutral or other State which is not a Party to that conflict; or
(b) By an impartial international humanitarian organization,
provided that, in either case, the requirements set out in that Article are complied with.
3. Small craft described in Article 27 of the Second Convention shall be protected even if the notification envisaged by that Article has not been made. The Parties to the conflict are, nevertheless, invited to inform each other of any details of such craft which will facilitate their identification and recognition.

Article 23.-Other medical ships and craft
1. Medical ships and craft other than those referred to in Article 22 of this Protocol and Article 38 of the Second Convention shall, whether at sea or in other waters, be respected and protected in the same way as mobile medical units under the Conventions and this Protocol. Since this protection can only be effective if they can be identified and recognized as medical ships or craft, such vessels should be marked with the distinctive emblem and as far as possible comply with the second paragraph of Article 43 of the Second Convention.
2. The ships and craft referred to in paragraph I shall remain subject to the laws of war. Any warship on the surface able immediately to enforce its command may order them to stop, order them off, or make them take a certain course, and they shall obey every such command. Such ships and craft may not in any other way be diverted from their medical mission so long as they are needed for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board.
3. The protection provided in paragraph I shall cease only under the conditions set out in Articles 34 and 35 of the Second Convention. A clear refusal to obey a command given in accordance with paragraph 2 shall be an act harmful to the enemy under Article 34 of the Second Convention.
4. A Party to the conflict may notify any adverse Party as far in advance of sailing as possible of the name, description, expected time of sailing, course and estimated speed of the medical ship or craft, particularly in the case of ships of over 2,000 gross tons, and may provide any other information which would facilitate identification and recognition. The adverse Party shall acknowledge receipt of such information.
5. The provisions of Article 37 of the Second Convention shall apply to medical and religious personnel in such ships and craft.
6. The provisions of the Second Convention shall apply to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked belonging to the categories referred to in Article 13 of the Second Convention and in Article 44 of this Protocol who may be on board such medical ships and craft. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked civilians who do not belong to any of the categories mentioned in Article 13 of the Second Convention shall not be subject, at sea, either to surrender to any Party which is not their own; or to removal from such ships or craft; if they find themselves in the power of a Party to the conflict other than their own, they shall be covered by the Fourth Convention and by this Protocol.

Article 24.-Protection of medical aircraft
Medical aircraft shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Part.

Article 25.-Medical aircraft in areas not controlled by an adverse Party
In and over land areas physically controlled by friendly forces, or in and over sea areas not physically controlled by an adverse Party, the respect and protection of medical aircraft of a Party to the conflict is not dependent on any agreement with an adverse Party. For greater safety, however, a Party to the conflict operating its medical aircraft in these areas may notify the adverse Party, as provided in Article 29, in particular when such aircraft are making flights bringing them within range of surface-to-air weapons systems of the adverse Party.

Article 26.-Medical aircraft in contact or similar zones
1. In and over those parts of the contact zone which are physically controlled by friendly forces and in and over those areas the physical control of which is not clearly established, protection for medical aircraft can be fully effective only by prior agreement between the competent military authorities of the Parties to the conflict, as provided for in Article 29. Although, in the absence of such an agreement, medical aircraft operate at their own risk, they shall nevertheless be respected after they have been recognized as such.
2. “Contact zone” means any area on land where the forward elements of opposing forces are in contact with each other, especially where they are exposed to direct fire from the ground.

Article 27.-Medical aircraft in areas controlled by an adverse Party
1. The medical aircraft of a Party to the conflict shall continue to be protected while flying over land or sea areas physically controlled by an adverse Patty, provided that prior agreement to such flights has been obtained from the competent authority of the adverse Party.
2. A medical aircraft which flies over an area physically controlled by an adverse Party without, or in deviation from the terms of, an agreement provided for in paragraph 1, either through navigational error or because of an emergency affecting the safety of the flight, shall make every effort to identify itself and to inform the adverse Party of the circumstances. As soon as such medical aircraft has been recognized by the adverse Party, that Party shall make all reasonable efforts to given the order to land or to alight on water, referred to in Article 30, paragraph 1, or to take other measures to safeguard its own interests, and, in either case, to allow the aircraft time for compliance, before resorting to an attack against the aircraft.

Article 28.-Restrictions on operations of medical aircraft
1. The Parties to the conflict are prohibited from using their medical aircraft to attempt to acquire any military advantage over an adverse Party. The presence of medical aircraft shall not be used in an attempt to render military objectives immune from attack.
2. Medical aircraft shall not be used to collect or transmit intelligence data and shall not carry any equipment intended for such purposes. They are prohibited from carrying any persons or cargo not included within the definition in Article 8, subparagraph (t). The carrying on board of the personal effects of the occupants or of equipment intended solely to facilitate navigation, communication or identification shall not be considered as prohibited.
3. Medical aircraft shall not carry any armament except small arms and ammunition taken from the wounded, sick and shipwrecked on board and not yet handed to the proper service, and such light individual weapons as may be necessary to enable the medical personnel on board to defend themselves and the wounded, sick and shipwrecked in their charge.
4. While carrying out the flights referred to in Articles 26 and 27, medical aircraft shall not, except by prior agreement with the adverse Party, be used to search for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked

Article 29.-Notifications and agreements concerning medical aircraft
1. Notifications under Article 25, or requests for prior agreement under Articles 26, 27, 28 (paragraph 4), or 31 shall state the proposed number of medical aircraft, their flight plans and means of identification, and shall be understood to mean that every flight will be carried out in compliance with Article 28.
2. A Party which receives a notification given under Article 25 shall at once acknowledge receipt of such notification.
3. A Party which receives a request for prior agreement under Articles 26, 27, 28 (paragraph 4), or 31 shall, as rapidly as possible, notify the requesting Party:
(a) That the request is agreed to;
(b) That the request is denied; or
(c) Of reasonable alternative proposals to the request. It may also propose a prohibition or restriction of other flights in the area during the time involved. If the Party which submitted the request accepts the alternative proposals, it shall notify the other Party of such acceptance.
4. The Parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure that notifications and agreements can be made rapidly.
5. The Parties shall also take the necessary measures to disseminate rapidly the substance of any such notifications and agreements to the military units concerned and shall instruct those units regarding the means of identification that will be used by the medical aircraft in question.

Article 30.-Landing and inspection of medical aircraft
1. Medical aircraft flying over areas which are physically controlled by an adverse Party, or over areas the physical control of which is not clearly established, may be ordered to land or to alight on water, as appropriate, to permit inspection in
accordance with the following paragraphs. Medical aircraft shall obey any such order.
2. If such an aircraft lands or alights on water, whether ordered to do so or for other reasons, it may be subjected to inspection solely to determine the matters referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4. Any such inspection shall be commenced without delay and shall be conducted expeditiously. The inspecting Party shall not require the wounded and sick to be removed from the aircraft unless their removal is essential for the inspection. That Party shall in any event ensure that the condition of the wounded and sick is not adversely affected by the inspection or by the removal.
3. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:
(a) Is a medical aircraft within the meaning of Article 8, subparagraph (i);
(b) Is not in violation of the conditions prescribed in Article 28; and
(c) Has not flown without or in breach of a prior agreement where such agreement is required; the aircraft and those of its occupants who belong to the adverse Party or to a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict shall be authorized to continue the flight without delay.
4. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:
(a) Is not a medical aircraft within the meaning of Article 8, subparagraph (j);
(b) Is in violation of the conditions prescribed in Article 28; or,
(c) Has flown without or in breach of a prior agreement where such agreement is required; the aircraft may be seized. Its occupants shall be treated in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol. Any aircraft seized which had been assigned as a permanent medical aircraft may be used thereafter only as a medical aircraft.

Article 31.-Neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict
1. Except by prior agreement, medical aircraft shall not fly over or land in the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict. However, with such an agreement, they shall be respected throughout their flight and also for the duration of any calls in the territory. Nevertheless they shall obey any summons to land or to alight on water, as appropriate.
2. Should a medical aircraft, in the absence of an agreement or in deviation from the terms of an agreement, fly over the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict, either through navigational error or because of an
emergency affecting the safety o the flight, it shall make every effort to give notice of the flight and to identify itself. As soon as such medical aircraft is recognized, that State shall make all reasonable efforts to give the order to land or to alight on water referred to in Article 30, paragraph 1, or to take other measures to safeguard its own interests, and in either case, to allow the aircraft time for compliance, before resorting to an attack against the aircraft.
3. If a medical aircraft, either by agreement or in the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 2, lands or alights on water in the territory of a neutral or other State not Party to the conflict, whether ordered to do so or for other reasons, the aircraft shall be subject to inspection for the purposes of determining whether it is in fact a medical aircraft. The inspection shall be commenced without delay and shall be conducted expeditiously. The inspecting Party shall not require the wounded and sick of the Party operating the aircraft to be removed from it unless their removal is essential for the inspection. The inspecting Party shall in any event ensure that the condition of the wounded and sick is not adversely affected by the inspection or the removal. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft is in fact a medical aircraft, the aircraft with its occupants, other than those who must be detained in accordance with the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, shall be allowed to resume its flight, and reasonable facilities shall be given for the continuation of the flight. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft is not a medical aircraft, it shall be seized and the occupants treated in accordance with paragraph 4.
4. The wounded, sick and shipwrecked disembarked, otherwise than temporarily, from a medical aircraft with the consent of the local authorities in the territory of a neutral or other State not a Party to the conflict shall, unless agreed otherwise between that State and the Parties to the conflict, be detained by that Sate where so required by the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, in such a manner that they cannot again take part in the hostilities. The cost of hospital treatment and internment shall be borne by the State to which those persons belong.
5. Neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict shall apply any conditions and restrictions on the passage of medical aircraft over, or on the landing of medical aircraft in, their territory equally to all Parties to the conflict.

SECTION.-MISSING AND DEAD PERSONS

Article 32.-General principle
In the implementation of this Section, the activities of the High Contracting Parties, of the Parties to the conflict and of the international humanitarian organizations mentioned in the Conventions and in this Protocol shall be prompted mainly by the right of families to know the fate of their relatives.

Article 33.-Missing persons
1. As soon as circumstances permit, and at the latest from the end of active hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall search for the persons who have been reported missing by an adverse Party. Such adverse Party shall transmit all relevant information concerning such persons in order to facilitate such searches.
2. In order to facilitate the gathering of information pursuant to the preceding paragraph, each Party to the conflict shall, with respect to persons who would not receive more favourable consideration under the Conventions and this Protocol:
(a) Record the information specified in Article 138 of the Fourth Convention in respect of such persons who have been detained, imprisoned or otherwise held in captivity for more than two weeks as a result of hostilities or occupation, or who have died during any period of detention;
(b) To the fullest extent possible, facilitate and, if need be, carry out the search for and the recording of information concerning such persons if they have died in other circumstances as a result of hostilities or occupation.
3. Information concerning persons reported missing pursuant to paragraph I and requests for such information shall be transmitted either directly or through the Protecting Power or the Central Tracing Agency of the International Committee of the Red Cross or national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies. Where the information is not transmitted through the International Committee of the Red Cross and its Central Tracing Agency, each Party to the conflict shall ensure that such information is also supplied to the Central Tracing Agency.
4. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to agree on arrangements for teams to search for, identify and recover the dead from battlefield areas, including arrangements, if appropriate, for such teams to be accompanied by personnel of the adverse Party while carrying out the missions in areas controlled by the adverse Party. Personnel of such teams shall be respected and protected while exclusively carrying out these duties.

Article 34.-Remains of deceased
1. The remains of persons who have died for reasons related to occupation or in detention resulting from occupation or hostilities and those of persons not nationals of the country in which they have died as a result of hostilities shall be respected, and the gravesites of all such persons shall be respected, maintained and marked as provided for in Article 130 of the Fourth Convention, where their remains or gravesites would not receive more favourable consideration under the Conventions and this Protocol.
2. As soon as circumstances and the relations between the adverse Parties permit, the High Contracting Parties in whose territories graves and, as the case may be, other locations of the remains of persons who have died as a result of hostilities or during occupation or in detention are situated, shall conclude agreements in order:
(a) To facilitate access to the gravesites by relatives of the deceased and by representatives of official graves registration services and to regulate the practical arrangements for such access;
(b) To protect and maintain such gravesites permanently;
(c) To facilitate the return of the remains of the deceased and of personal effects to the home country upon its request or, unless that country objects, upon the request of the next of kin.
3. In the absence of the agreements provided for in paragraph 2 (b) or (c) and if the home country of such deceased is not willing to arrange at its expense for the maintenance of such gravesites, the High Contracting Party in whose territory the gravesites are situated may offer to facilitate the return of the remains of the deceased to the home country. Where such an offer has not been accepted the High Contracting Party may, after the expiry of five years from the date of the offer and upon due notice to the home country, adopt the arrangements laid down in its own laws relating to cemeteries and graves.
4. A High Contracting Party in whose territory the gravesites referred to in this Article are situated shall be permitted to exhume the remains only:
(a) In accordance with paragraphs 2 (c) and 3; or
(b) Where exhumation is a matter of overriding public necessity, including cases of medical and investigative necessity, in which case the High Contracting Party shall at all times respect the remains, and shall give notice to the home country of its intention to exhume the remains together with details of the intended place of reinterment.

PART III
METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE
COMBATANT AND PRISONER-OF-WAR STATUS
SECTION I.-METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE

Article 35.-Basic rules
1. In any armed conflict, the right of the Parties to the conflict to choose methods or means of warfare is not unlimited.
2. It is prohibited to employ weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering.
3. It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment.

Article 36.-New weapons
In the study, development, acquisition or adoption of a new weapon, means or method of warfare, a High Contracting Party is under an obligation to determine whether its employment would, in some or all circumstances, be prohibited by this Protocol or by any other rule of international law applicable to the High Contracting Party.

Article 37.-Prohibition of perfidy
1. It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by resort to perfidy. Acts inviting the confidence of an adversary to lead him to believe that he is entitled to, or is obliged to accord, protection under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, with intent to betray that confidence, shall constitute perfidy. The following acts are examples of perfidy:
(a) The feigning of an intent to negotiate under a flag of truce or of a surrender;
(b) The feigning of an incapacitation by wounds or sickness;
(c) The feigning of civilian, non-combatant status; and
(d) The feigning of protected status by the use of signs, emblems or uniforms of the United Nations or of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict.
2. Ruses of war are not prohibited. Such ruses are acts which are intended to mislead an adversary or to induce him to act recklessly but which infringe no rule of international law applicable in armed conflict and which are not perfidious because they do not invite the confidence of an adversary with respect to protection under that law. The following are examples of such ruses: the use of camouflage, decoys, mock operations and misinformation.

Article 38.-Recognized emblems
1. It is prohibited to make improper use of the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun or of other emblems, signs or signals
provided for by the Conventions or by this Protocol. It is also prohibited to misuse deliberately in an armed conflict other internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals, including the flag of truce, and the protective emblem of cultural property.
2. It is prohibited to make use of the distinctive emblem of the United Nations, except as authorized by that Organization.

Article 39.-Emblems of nationality
1. It is prohibited to make use in an armed conflict of the flags or military emblems, insignia or uniforms of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict.
2. It is prohibited to make use of the flags or military emblems, insignia or uniforms of adverse Parties while engaging in attacks or in order to shield, favour, protect or impede military operations.
3. Nothing in this Article or in Article 37, paragraph 1 (d), shall affect the existing generally recognized rules of international law applicable to espionage or to the use of flags in the conduct of armed conflict at sea.

Article 40.-Quarter
It is prohibited to order that there shall be no survivors, to threaten an adversary therewith or to conduct hostilities on this basis.

Article 41.-Safeguard of an enemy hors de combat
1. A person who is recognized or who, in the circumstances, should be recognized to be hors de combat shall not be made the object of attack.
2. A person is hors de combat if:
(a) He is in the power of an adverse Party;
(b) He clearly expresses an intention to surrender; or
(c) He has been rendered unconscious or is otherwise incapacitated by wounds or sickness, and therefore is incapable of defending himself; provided that in any of these cases he abstains from any hostile act and does not attempt to escape.
3. When persons entitled to protection as prisons of war have fallen into the power of an adverse Party under unusual conditions of combat which prevent their evacuation as provided for in Part m, Section I, of the Third Convention,
they shall be released and all feasible precautions shall be taken to ensure their safety.

Article 42.-Occupants of aircraft
1. No person parachuting from an aircraft in distress shall be made the object of attack during his descent.
2. Upon reaching the ground in territory controlled by an adverse Party, a person who has parachuted from an aircraft in distress shall be given an opportunity to surrender before being made the object of attack, unless it is apparent that he is engaging in a hostile act.
3. Airborne troops are not protected by this Article.

SECTION.-COMBATANT AND PRISONER-OF-WAR STATUS

Article 43.-Armed forces
1. The armed forces of a Party to a conflict consist of all organized armed forces, groups and units which are under a command responsible to that Party for the conduct of its subordinates, even if that Party is represented by a government or an authority not recognized by an adverse Party. Such armed forces shall be subject to an internal disciplinary system which, inter alia, shall enforce compliance with the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.
2. Members of the armed forces of a Party to a conflict (other than medical personnel and chaplains covered by Article 33 of the Third Convention) are combatants, that is to say, they have the right to participate directly in hostilities.
3. Whenever a Party to a conflict incorporates a paramilitary or armed law enforcement agency into its armed forces it shall so notify the other Parties to the conflict.

Article 44.-Combatants and prisoners of war
1. Any combatant, as defined in Article 43, who falls into the power of an adverse Party shall be a prisoner of war.
2. While all combatants are obliged to comply with the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, violations of these rules shall not deprive a combatant of his right to be a combatant or, if he falls into the power of an adverse Party, of his right to be a prisoner of war, except as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4.
3. In order to promote the protection of the civilian population from the effects of hostilities, combatants are obliged to distinguish themselves from the civilian population while they are engaged in an attack or in a military operation preparatory to an attack. Recognizing, however, that there are situations in armed conflicts where, owing to the nature of the hostilities an armed combatant cannot so distinguish himself, he shall retain his status as a combatant, provided that, in such situations, he carries his arms openly:
(a) During each military engagement, and
(b) During such time as he is visible to the adversary while he is engaged in a military deployment preceding the launching of an attack in which he is to participate.
Acts which comply with the requirements of this paragraph shall not be considered as perfidious within the meaning of Article 37, paragraph 1 (c).
4. A combatant who falls into the power of an adverse Party while failing to meet the requirements set forth in the second sentence of paragraph 3 shall forfeit his right to be a prisoner of war, but he shall, nevertheless, be given protections equivalent in all respects to those accorded to prisoners of war by the Third Convention and by this Protocol. This protection includes protections equivalent to those accorded to prisoners of war by the Third Convention in the case where such a person is tried and punished for any offences he has committed.
5. Any combatant who falls into the power of an adverse Party while not engaged in an attack or in a military operation preparatory to an attack shall not forfeit his rights to be a combatant and a prisoner of war by virtue of his prior activities.
6. This Article is without prejudice to the right of any person to be a prisoner of war pursuant to Article 4 of the Third Convention.
7. This Article is not intended to change the generally accepted practice of States with respect to the wearing of the uniform by combatants assigned to the regular, uniformed armed units of a Party to the conflict.
8. In addition to the categories of persons mentioned in Article 13 of the First and Second Conventions, all members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as defined in Article 43 of this Protocol, shall be entitled to protection under those Conventions if they are wounded or sick or, in the case of the Second Convention, shipwrecked at sea or in other waters.

Article 45.-Protection of persons who have taken part in hostilities
1. A person who takes part in hostilities and falls into the power of an adverse Party shall be presumed to be a prisoner of war, and therefore shall be protected
by the Third Convention, if he claims the status of prisoner of war, or if he appears to be entitled to such status, or if the Party on which he depends claims such status on his behalf by notification to the detaining Power or to the Protecting Power. Should any doubt arise as to whether any such person is entitled to the status of prisoner of war, he shall continue to have such status and, therefore, to be protected by the Third Convention and this Protocol until such time as his status has been determined by a competent tribunal.
2. If a person who has fallen into the power of an adverse Party is not held as a prisoner of war and is to be tried by that Party for an offence arising out of the hostilities, he shall have the right to assert his entitlement to prisoner-of-war status before a judicial tribunal and to have that question adjudicated. Whenever possible under the applicable procedure, this adjudication shall occur before the trial for the offence. The representatives of the Protecting Power shall be entitled to attend the proceedings in which that question is adjudicated, unless, exceptionally, the proceedings are held in camera in the interest of State security. In such a case the detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.
3. Any person who has taken part in hostilities, who is not entitled to prisoner-of-war status and who does not benefit from more favourable treatment in accordance with the Fourth Convention shall have the right at all times to the protection of Article 75 of this Protocol. In occupied territory, an such person, unless he is held as a spy, shall also be entitled, notwithstanding Article 5 of the Fourth Convention, to his rights of communication under that Convention.

Article 46.-Spies
1. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Conventions or of this Protocol, any member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who falls into the power of an adverse Party while engaging in espionage shall not have the right to the status of prisoner of war and may be treated as a spy.
2. A member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who, on behalf of that Party and in territory controlled by an adverse Party, gathers or attempts to gather information shall not be considered as engaging in espionage if, while so acting, he is in the uniform of his armed forces.
3. A member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict who is a resident of territory occupied by an adverse Party and who, on behalf of the Party on which he depends, gathers or attempts to gather information of military value within that territory shall not be considered as engaging in espionage unless he does so through an act of false pretences or deliberately in a clandestine manner. Moreover, such a resident shall not lose his right to the status of prisoner of war and may not be treated as a spy unless he is captured while engaging in espionage.
4. A member of the armed forces of a Patty to the conflict who is not a resident of territory occupied by an adverse Party and who has engaged in espionage in that territory shall not lose his right to the status of prisoner of war and may not be treated as a spy unless he is captured before he has rejoined the armed forces to which he belongs.

Article 47.-Mercenaries
1. A mercenary shall not have the right to be a combatant or a prisoner of war.
2. A mercenary is any person who:
(a) Is specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict;
(b) Does, in fact, take a direct part in the hostilities;
(c) Is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party;
(d) Is neither a national of a Party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict;
(e) Is not a member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict; and
(f) Has not been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.

PART IV
CIVILIAN POPULATION
SECTION I.-GENERAL PROTECTION AGAINST EFFECTS OF HOSTILITIES
CHAPTER 1.-BASIC RULE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

Article 48.-Basic rule
In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives.

Article 49.-Definition of attacks and scope of application
1. “Attacks” means acts of violence against the adversary, whether in offence or in defence.
2. The provisions of this Protocol with respect to attacks apply to all attacks in whatever territory conducted, including the national territory belonging to a Party to the conflict but under the control of an adverse Party.
3. The provisions of this Section apply to any land, air or sea warfare which may affect the civilian population, individual civilians or civilian objects on land. They further apply to all attacks from the sea or from the air against objectives on land but do not otherwise affect the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict at sea or in the air.
4. The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules concerning humanitarian protection contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly in Part II thereof, and in other international agreements binding upon the High Contracting Parties, as well as to other rules of international law relating to the protection of civilians and civilian objects on land, at sea or in the air against the effects of hostilities.

CHAPTER 11.-CIVILIANS AND CIVILIAN POPULATION

Article 50.-Definition of civilians and civilian population
1. A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4 A (1), (2), (3) and (6) of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered to be a civilian.
2. The civilian population comprises all persons who are civilians.
3. The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character.

Article 51.-Protection of the civilian population
1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection, the following rules, which are additional to other applicable rules of international law, shall be observed in circumstances.
2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.
3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Section, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.
4. Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. Indiscriminate attacks are:
(a) Those which are not directed at a specific military objective;
(b) Those which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective; or
(c) Those which employ a method or means of combat the effects of which cannot be limited as required by this Protocol; and consequently, in each such case, are of a nature to strike military objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction.
5. Among others, the following types of attacks are to be considered as indiscriminate:
(a) An attack by bombardment by any methods or means which treats as a single military objective a number of clearly separated and distinct military objectives located in a city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians or civilian objects; and
(b) An attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
6. Attacks against the civilian population or civilians by way of reprisals are prohibited.
7. The presence or movements of the civilian population or individual civilians shall not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations, in particular in attempts to shield military objectives from attacks or to shield, favour or impede military operations. The Parties to the conflict shall not direct the movement of the civilian population or individual civilians in order to attempt to shield military objectives from attacks or to shield military operations.
8. Any violation of these prohibitions shall not release the Parties to the conflict from their legal obligations with respect to the civilian population and civilians, including the obligation to take the precautionary measures provided for in Article 57.

CHAPTER III.-CIVILIAN OBJECTS

Article 52.-General protection of civilian objects
1. Civilian objects shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals. Civilian objects are all objects which are not military objectives as defined in paragraph 2.
2. Attacks shall be limited strictly to military objectives. In so far as objects are concerned, military objectives are limited to those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite military of advantage.
3. In case of doubt whether an object which is normally dedicated to civilian purposes, such as a place of worship, a house or other dwelling or a school, is being used to make an effective contribution to military action, it shall be presumed not to be so used.

Article 53.-Protection of cultural objects and of places of worship
Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 14 May 1954, and of other relevant international instruments, it is prohibited:
(a) To commit any acts of hostility directed against the historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples;
(b) To use such objects in support of the military effort;
(c) To make such objects the object of reprisals.

Article 54.-Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population
1. Starvation of civilians as a method of warfare is prohibited.
2. It is prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, such as foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works, for the specific purpose of denying them for their sustenance value to the civilian population or to the adverse Party, whatever the motive, whether in order to starve out civilians, to cause them to move away, or for any other motive.
3. The prohibitions in paragraph 2 shall not apply to such of the objects covered by it as are used by an adverse Party:
(a) As sustenance solely for the members of its armed forces; or
(b) If not as sustenance, then in direct support of military action, provided, however, that in no event shall actions against these objects be taken which may be expected to leave the civilian population with such inadequate food or water as to cause its starvation or force its movement.
4. These objects shall not be made the object of reprisals.
5. In recognition of the vital requirements of any Party to the conflict in the defence of its national territory against invasion, derogation from the prohibitions contained in paragraph 2 may be made by a Party to the conflict within such territory under its own control where required by imperative military necessity.

Article 55.-Protection of the natural environment
1. Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage. This protection includes a prohibition of the use of methods or means of warfare which are intended or may be expected to cause such damage to the natural environment and thereby to prejudice the health or survival of the population.
2. Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisals are prohibited.

Article 56.-Protection of works and installations containing dangerous forces
1. Works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, shall not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations shall not be made the object of attack if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations and consequent severe losses among the civilian population.
2. The special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall cease:
(a) For a dam or a dyke only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;
(b) For a nuclear electrical generating station only if it provides electric power in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;
(c) For other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of
military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support.
3. In all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall remain entitled to all the protection accorded them by international law, including the protection of the precautionary measures provided for in Article 57. If the protection ceases and any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph I is attacked, all practical precautions shall be taken to avoid the release of the dangerous forces.
4. It is prohibited to make any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 the object of reprisals.
5. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to avoid locating any military objectives in the vicinity of the works or installations mentioned in paragraph 1. Nevertheless, installations erected for the sole purpose of defending the protected works or installations from attack are permissible and shall not themselves be made the object of attack, provided that they are not used in hostilities except for defensive actions necessary to respond to attacks against the protected works or installations and that their armament is limited to weapons capable only of repelling hostile action against the protected works or installations.
6. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict are urged to conclude further agreements among themselves to provide additional protection for objects containing dangerous forces.
7. In order to facilitate the identification of the objects protected by this article, the Parties to the conflict may mark them with a special sign consisting of a group of three bright orange circles placed on the same axis, as specified in Article 16 of Annex I to this Protocol. The absence of such marking in no way relieves any Party to the conflict of its obligations under this Article.

CHAPTER IV.-PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

Article 57.-Precautions in attack
1. In the conduct of military operations, constant care shall be taken to spare the civilian population, civilians and civilian objects.
2. With respect to attacks, the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) Those who plan or decide upon an attack shall:
(i) Do everything feasible to verify that the objectives to be attacked are neither civilians nor civilian objects and are not subject to special protection but are
military objectives within the meaning of paragraph 2 of Article 52 and that it is not prohibited by the provisions of this Protocol to attack them;
(ii) Take all feasible precautions in the choice of means and methods of attack with a view to avoiding, and in any event to minimizing, incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects;
(iii) Refrain from deciding to launch any attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated;
(b) An attack shall be cancelled or suspended if it becomes apparent that the objective is not a military one or is subject to special protection or that the attack may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated;
(c) Effective advance warning shall be given of attacks which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit.
3. When a choice is possible between several military objectives for obtaining a similar military advantage, the objective to be selected shall be that the attack on which may be expected to cause the least danger to civilian lives and to civilian objects.
4. In the conduct of military operations at sea or in the air, each Party to the conflict shall, in conformity with its rights and duties under the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, take all reasonable precautions to avoid losses of civilian lives and damage to civilian objects.
5. No provision of this Article may be construed as authorizing any attacks against the civilian population, civilians or civilian objects.

Article 58.-Precautions against the effects of attacks
The Parties to the conflict shall, to the maximum extent feasible:
(a) Without prejudice to Article 49 of the Fourth Convention, endeavour to remove the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their control from the vicinity of military objectives;
(b) Avoid locating military objectives within or near densely populated areas;
(c) Take the other necessary precautions to protect the civilian population, individual civilians and civilian objects under their control against the dangers resulting from military operations.

CHAPTER V.-LOCALITIES AND ZONES UNDER SPECIAL PROTECTION

Article 59.-Non-defended localities
1. It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to attack, by any means whatsoever, non-defended localities.
2. The appropriate authorities of a Party to the conflict may declare as a non-defended locality any inhabited place near or in a zone where armed forces are in contact which is open for occupation by an adverse Party. Such a locality shall fulfil the following conditions:
(a) All combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment must have been evacuated;
(b) No hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
(c) No acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and
(d) No activities in support of military operations shall be undertaken.
3. The presence, in this locality, of persons specially protected under the Conventions and this Protocol, and of police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 2.
4. The declaration made under paragraph 2 shall be addressed to the adverse Party and shall define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the non-defended locality. The Party to the conflict to which the declaration is addressed shall acknowledge its receipt and shall treat the locality as a non-defended locality unless the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 are not in fact fulfilled, in which event it shall immediately so inform the Party making the declaration. Even if the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 are not fulfilled, the locality shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.
5. The Parties to the conflict may agree on the establishment of non- defended localities even if such localities do not fulfil the conditions laid down in paragraph 2. The agreement should define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the non-defended locality; if necessary, it may lay down the methods of supervision.
6. The Party which is in control of a locality governed by such an agreement shall mark it, so far as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon with the other Party, which shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on its perimeter and limits and on highways.
7. A locality loses its status as a non-defended locality when it ceases to fulfil the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 or in the agreement referred to in paragraph 5. In such an eventuality, the locality shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.

Article 60.-Demilitarized zones
1. It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to extend their military operations to zones on which they have conferred by agreement the status of demilitarized zone, if such extension is contrary to the terms of this agreement.
2. The agreement shall be an express agreement, may be concluded verbally or in writing, either directly or through a Protecting Power or any impartial humanitarian organization, and may consist of reciprocal and concordant declarations. The agreement may be concluded in peacetime, as well as after the outbreak of hostilities, and should define and describe, as precisely as possible, the limits of the demilitarized zone and, if necessary, lay down the methods of supervision.
3. The subject of such an agreement shall normally be any zone which fulfils the following conditions:
(a) All combatants, as well as mobile weapons and mobile military equipment, must have been evacuated;
(b) No hostile use shall be made of fixed military installations or establishments;
(c) No acts of hostility shall be committed by the authorities or by the population; and
(d) Any activity linked to the military effort must have ceased.
The Parties to the conflict shall agree upon the interpretation to be given to the condition laid down in sub-paragraph (d) and upon persons to be admitted to the demilitarized zone other than those mentioned in paragraph 4.
4. The presence, in this zone, of persons specially protected under the Conventions and this Protocol, and of police forces retained for the sole purpose of maintaining law and order, is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 3.
5. The Party which is in control of such a zone shall mark it, so far as possible, by such signs as may be agreed upon with the other Party, which shall be displayed where they are clearly visible, especially on its perimeter and limits and on highways.
6. If the fighting draws near to a demilitarized zone, and if the Parties to the conflict have so agreed, none of them may use the zone for purposes related to the conduct of military operations or unilaterally revoke its status.
7. If one of the Parties to the conflict commits a material breach of the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 6, the other Party shall be released from its obligations under the agreement conferring upon the zone the status of demilitarized zone. In such an eventuality, the zone loses its status but shall continue to enjoy the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other rules of international law applicable in armed conflict.

CHAPTER VI.-CIVIL DEFENCE

Article 61.-Definitions and scope
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) ”Civil defence” means the performance of some or all of the undermentioned humanitarian tasks intended to protect the civilian population against the dangers, and to help it to recover from the immediate effects, of hostilities or disasters and also to provide the conditions necessary for its survival. These tasks are:
(i) Warning; (ii) Evacuation;
(iii) Management of shelters;
(iv) Management of blackout measures;
(v) Rescue;
(vi) Medical services, including first aid, and religious assistance;
(vii) Fire-fighting;
(viii) Detection and marking of danger areas;
(ix) Decontamination and similar protective measures;
(x) Provision of emergency accommodation and supplies;
(xi) Emergency assistance in the restoration and maintenance of order in distressed areas;
(xii) Emergency repair of indispensable public utilities;
(xiii) Emergency disposal of the dead;
(xiv) Assistance in the preservation of objects essential for survival;
(xv) Complementary activities necessary to carry out any of the tasks mentioned above, including, but not limited to, planning and organization;
(b) ”Civil defence organizations” means those establishments and other units which are organized or authorized by the competent authorities of a Party to the conflict to perform any of the tasks mentioned under subparagraph (a), and which are assigned and devoted exclusively to such tasks;
(c) “Personnel” of civil defence organizations means those persons assigned by a Party to the conflict exclusively to the performance of the tasks mentioned under sub-paragraph (a), including personnel assigned by the competent authority of that Party exclusively to the administration of these organizations;
(d) “Mat‚riel” of civil defence organizations means equipment, supplies and transports used by these organizations for the performance of the tasks mentioned under sub-paragraph (a).

Article 62.-General protection
1. Civilian civil defence organizations and their personnel shall be respected and protected, subject to the provisions of this Protocol, particularly the provisions of this Section. They shall be entitled to perform their civil defence tasks except in case of imperative military necessity.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to civilians who, although not members of civilian civil defence organizations, respond to an appeal from the competent authorities and perform civil defence tasks under their control.
3. Buildings and mat‚riel used for civil defence purposes and shelters provided for the civilian population are covered by Article 52. Objects
used for civil defence purposes may not be destroyed or diverted from their proper use except by the Party to which they belong.

Article 63.-Civil defence in occupied territories
1. In occupied territories, civilian civil defence organizations shall receive from the authorities the facilities necessary for the performance of their tasks. In no circumstances shall their personnel be compelled to perform activities which would interfere with the proper performance of these tasks. The Occupying Power shall not change the structure or personnel of such organizations in any way which might jeopardize the efficient performance of their mission. These organizations shall not be required to give priority to the nationals or interests of that Power.
2. The Occupying Power shall not compel, coerce or induce civilian civil defense organizations to perform their tasks in an manner prejudicial to the interests of the civilian population.
3. The Occupying Power may disarm civil defense personnel for reasons of security.
4. The Occupying Power shall neither divert from their proper use nor requisition buildings or mat‚riel belonging to or used by civil defense organizations if such diversion or requisition would be harmful to the civilian population.
5. Provided that the general rule in paragraph 4 continues to be observed, the occupying Power may requisition or divert these resources, subject to the following particular conditions:
(a) That the buildings or mat‚riel are necessary for other needs of the civilian population; and
(b) That the requisition or diversion continues only while such necessity exists.
6. The Occupying Power shall neither divert nor requisition shelters provided for the use of the civilian population or needed by such population.

Article 64.-Civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict and international co-ordinating organizations
1. Articles 62, 63, 65 and 66 shall also apply to the personnel and mat‚riel of civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict which perform civil defense tasks mentioned in Article 61 in the territory of a Party to the conflict, with the consent and under the control of that Party. Notification of such assistance shall be given as soon as possible to any adverse Party concerned. In no circumstances shall this activity be deemed to be an interference in the conflict. This activity
should, however, be performed with due regard to the security interests of the Parties to the conflict concerned.
2. The Parties to the conflict receiving the assistance referred to in paragraph 1 and the High Contracting Parties granting it should facilitate international co-ordination of such civil defence actions when appropriate. In such cases the relevant international organizations are covered by the provisions of this Chapter.
3. In occupied territories, the Occupying Power may only exclude or restrict the activities of civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict and of international co-ordinating organizations if it can ensure the adequate performance of civil defence tasks from its own resources or those of the occupied territory.

Article 65.-Cessation of protection
1. The protection to which civilian civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings, shelters and mat‚riel are entitled shall not cease unless they commit or are used to commit, outside their proper tasks, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after a warning has been given setting, whenever appropriate, a reasonable time-limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.
2. The following shall not be considered as acts harmful to the enemy:
(a) That civil defence tasks are carried out under the direction or control of military authorities;
(b) That civilian civil defence personnel co-operate with military personnel in the performance of civil defence tasks, or that some military personnel are attached to civilian civil defence organizations;
(c) That the performance of civil defence tasks may incidentally benefit military victims, particularly those who are hors de combat.
3. It shall also not be considered as an act harmful to the enemy that civilian defence personnel bear light individual weapons for the purpose of maintaining order or for self-defence. However, in areas where land fighting it taking place or is likely to take place, the Parties to the conflict shall undertake the appropriate measures to limit these weapons to handguns, such as pistols or revolvers, in order to assist in distinguishing between civil defence personnel and combatants. Although civil defence personnel bear other light individual weapons in such areas, they shall nevertheless be respected and protected as soon as they have been recognized as such.
4. The formation of civilian civil defence organizations along military lines, and compulsory service in them, shall also not deprive them of the protection conferred by this Chapter.

Article 66.-Identification
1. Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that its civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings and mat‚riel, are identifiable while they are exclusively devoted to the performance of civil defence tasks. Shelters provided for the civilian population should be similarly identifiable.
2. Each Party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt and implement methods and procedures which will make it possible to recognize civilian shelters as well as civil defence personnel, buildings and mat‚riel on which the international distinctive sign of civil defence is displayed.
3. In occupied territories and in areas where fighting is taking place or is likely to take place, civilian civil defence personnel should be recognizable by the international distinctive sign of civil defence and by an identity and certifying their status.
4. The international distinctive sign of civil defence is an equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground when used for the protection of civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings and mat‚riel and for civilian shelters.
5. In addition to the distinctive sign, Parties to the conflict may agree upon the use of distinctive signals for civil defence identification purposes.
6. The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 is governed by Chapter V of Annex I to this Protocol.
7. In time of peace, the sign described in paragraph 4 may, with the consent of the competent national authorities, be used for civil defence identification purposes.
8. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall take the measures necessary to supervise the display of the international distinctive sign of civil defence and to prevent and repress any misuse thereof.
9. The identification of civil defence medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transports is also governed by Article 18.

Article 67.-Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to civil defence organizations
1. Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to civil defence organizations shall be respected and protected, provided that:
(a) Such personnel and such units are permanently assigned and exclusively devoted to the performance of any of the tasks mentioned in Article 61;
(b) If so assigned, such personnel do not perform any other military duties during the conflict;
(c) Such personnel are clearly distinguishable from the other members of the armed forces by prominently displaying the international distinctive sign of civil defence, which shall be as large as appropriate, and such personnel are provided with the identity card referred to in Chapter V of Annexe I to this Protocol certifying their status;
(d) Such personnel and such units are equipped only with light individual weapons for the purpose of maintaining order or for self-defence. The provisions of Article 65, paragraph 3 shall also apply in this case;
(e) Such personnel do not participate directly in hostilities, and do not commit, or are not used to commit, outside their civil defence tasks, acts harmful to the adverse Party;
(f) Such personnel and such units perform their civil defence tasks only within the national territory of their Party.
The non-observance of the conditions stated in (e) above by any member of the armed forces who is bound by the conditions prescribed in (a) and (b) above is prohibited.
2 . Military personnel serving within civil defence organizations shall, if they fall into the power of an adverse Party, be prisoners of war. In occupied territory they may, but only in the interest of the civilian population of that territory, be employed on civil defence tasks in so far as the need arises, provided however that, if such work is dangerous, they volunteer for such tasks.
3. The buildings and major items of equipment and transports of military units assigned to civil defence organizations shall be clearly marked with the international distinctive sign of civil defence. This distinctive sign shall be as large as appropriate.
4. The mat‚riel and buildings of military units permanently assigned to civil defence organizations and exclusively devoted to the performance of civil defence tasks shall, if they fall into the hands of an adverse Party, remain subject to the laws of war. They may not be diverted from their civil defence purpose so long as they are required for the performance of civil defence tasks, except in case of imperative military necessity, unless previous arrangements have been made for adequate provision for the needs of the civilian population.

SECTION II.-RELIEF IN FAVOUR OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION

Article 68.-Field of application
The provisions of this Section apply to the civilian population as defined in this Protocol and are supplementary to Articles 23, 55, 59, 60, 61 and 62 and other relevant provisions of the Fourth Convention.

Article 69.-Basic needs in occupied territories
1. In addition to the duties specified in Article 55 of the Fourth Convention concerning food and medical supplies, the Occupying Power shall, to the fullest extent of the means available to it and without any adverse distinction, also ensure the provision of clothing, bedding, means of shelter, other supplies essential to the survival of the civilian population of the occupied territory and objects necessary for religious worship.
2. Relief actions for the benefit of the civilian population of occupied territories are governed by Articles 59, 60, 61, 62, 108, 109, 110 and 111 of the Fourth Convention, and by Article 71 of this Protocol, and shall be implemented without delay.

Article 70.-Relief actions
1. If the civilian population of any territory under the control of a Party to the conflict, other than occupied territory, is not adequately provided with the supplies mentioned in Article 69, relief actions which are humanitarian and impartial in character and conducted without any adverse distinction shall be undertaken, subject to the agreement of the Parties concerned in such relief actions. Offers of such relief shall not be regarded as interference in the armed conflict or as unfriendly acts. In the distribution of relief consignments, priority shall be given to those persons, such as children, expectant mothers, maternity cases and nursing mothers, who, under the Fourth Convention or under this Protocol, are to be accorded privileged treatment or special protection.
2. The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party shall allow and facilitate rapid and unimpeded passage of all relief consignments, equipment and personnel provided in accordance with this Section, even if such assistance is destined for the civilian population of the adverse Party.
3. The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party which allow the passage of relief consignments, equipment and personnel in accordance with paragraph 2:
(a) Shall have the right to prescribe the technical arrangements, including search, under which such passage is permitted;
(b) May make such permission conditional on the distribution of this assistance being made under the local supervision of a Protecting Power;
(c) Shall, in no way whatsoever, divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended nor delay their forwarding, except in cases of urgent necessity in the interest of the civilian population concerned.
4. The Parties to the conflict shall protect relief consignments and facilitate their rapid distribution.
5. The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party concerned shall encourage and facilitate effective international co-ordination of the relief actions referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 71.-Personnel participating in relief actions
1. Where necessary, relief personnel may form part of the assistance provided in any relief action, in particular for the transportation and distribution of relief consignments; the participation of such personnel shall be subject to the approval of the Party in whose territory they will carry out their duties.
2. Such personnel shall be respected and protected.
3. Each Party in receipt of relief consignments shall, to the fullest extent practicable, assist the relief personnel referred to in paragraph 1 in carrying out their relief mission. Only in case of imperative military necessity may the activities of the relief personnel be limited or their movements temporarily restricted.
4. Under no circumstances may relief personnel exceed the terms of their mission under this Protocol. In particular they shall take account of the security requirements of the Party in whose territory they are carrying out their duties. The mission of any of the personnel who do not respect these conditions may be terminated.

SECTION III.-TREATMENT OF PERSONS IN THE POWER OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT
CHAPTER 1.-FIELD OF APPLICATION AND PROTECTION OF PERSONS AND OBJECTS

Article 72.-Field of application
The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules concerning humanitarian protection of civilians and civilian objects in the power of a Party to the conflict contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly Parts I and m thereof, as well as to other applicable rules of international law relating to the protection of fundamental human rights during international armed conflict.

Article 73.-Refugees and stateless persons
Persons who, before the beginning of hostilities, were considered as stateless persons or refugees under the relevant international instruments accepted by the Parties concerned or under the national legislation of the State of refuge or State of residence shall be protected persons within the meaning of Parts I and III of the Fourth Convention, in all circumstances and without any adverse distinction.

Article 74.-Reunion of dispersed families
The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way the reunion of families dispersed as a result of armed conflicts and shall encourage in particular the work of the humanitarian organizations engaged in this task in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol and in conformity with their respective security regulations.

Article 75.-Fundamental guarantees
1. In so far as they are affected by a situation referred to in Article 1 of this Protocol, persons who are in the power of a Party to the conflict and who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or under this Protocol shall be treated humanely in all circumstances and shall enjoy, as a minimum, the protection provided by this Article without any adverse distinction based upon race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief, political or other opinion, national or social origin, wealth, birth or other status, or on any other similar criteria. Each Party shall respect the person, honour, convictions and religious practices of all such persons.
2. The following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever, whether committed by civilian or by military agents:
(a) Violence to the life, health, or physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular:
(i) Murder;
(ii) Torture of all kinds, whether physical or mental;
( iii ) Corporal punishment ; and
(iv) Mutilation;
(b) Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault;
(c) The taking of hostages;
(d) Collective punishments; and
(e) Threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.
3. Any person arrested, detained or interned for actions related to the armed conflict shall be informed promptly, in a language he understands, of the reasons why these measures have been taken. Except in cases of arrest or detention for penal offences, such persons shall be released with the minimum delay possible and in any event as soon as the circumstances justifying the arrest, detention or internment have ceased to exist.
4. No sentence may be passed and no penalty may be executed on a person found guilty of a penal offence related to the armed conflict except pursuant to a conviction pronounced by an impartial and regularly constituted court respecting the generally recognized principles of regular judicial procedure, which include the following:
(a) The procedure shall provide for an accused to be informed without delay of the particulars of the offence alleged against him and shall afford the accused before and during his trial all necessary rights and means of defence;
(b) No one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility;
(c) No one shall be accused or convicted of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under the national or international law to which he was subject at the time when it was committed; nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed; if, after the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby;
(d) Anyone charged with an offence is presumed innocent until proved guilt according to law;
(e) Anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to be tried in his presence;
(f) No one shall be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt;
(g) Anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(h) No one shall be prosecuted or punished by the same Party for an offence in respect of which a final judgement acquitting or convicting that person has been previously pronounced under the same law and judicial procedure;
(i) Anyone prosecuted for an offence shall have the right to have the judgement pronounced publicly; and
(i) A convicted person shall be advised on conviction of his judicial and other remedies and of the time-limits within which they may be exercised.
5. Women whose liberty has been restricted for reasons related to the armed conflict shall be held in quarters separated from men’s quarters. They shall be under the immediate supervision of women. Nevertheless, in cases
where families are detained or interned, they shall, whenever possible, be held in the same place and accommodated as family units.
6. Persons who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict shall enjoy the protection provided by this Article until their final release, repatriation or re-establishment, even after the end of the armed conflict.
7. In order to avoid any doubt concerning the prosecution and trial of persons accused of war crimes or crimes against humanity, the following principles shall apply:
(a) Persons who are accused of such crimes should be submitted for the purpose of prosecution and trial in accordance with the applicable rules of international law; and
(b) Any such persons who do not benefit from more favourable treatment under the Conventions or this Protocol shall be accorded the treatment provided by this Article, whether or not the crimes of which they are accused constitute grave breaches of the Conventions or of this Protocol.
8. No provision of this Article may be construed as limiting or infringing any other more favourable provision granting greater protection, under any applicable rules of international law, to persons covered by paragraph 1.

CHAPTER 11.-MEASURES IN FAVOUR OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN

Article 76.-Protection of women
1. Women shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected in particular against rape, forced prostitution and any other form of indecent assault.
2. Pregnant women and mothers having dependent infants who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict, shall have their cases considered with the utmost priority.
3. To the maximum extent feasible, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to avoid the pronouncement of the death penalty on pregnant women or mothers having dependent infants, for an offence related to the armed conflict. The death penalty for such offences shall not be executed on such women.

Article 77.-Protection of children
1. Children shall be the object of special respect and shall be protected against any form of indecent assault. The Parties to the conflict shall
provide them with the care and aid they require, whether because of their age or for any other reason.
2. The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures in order that children who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities and, in particular, they shall refrain from recruiting them into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, the Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.
3. If, in exceptional cases, despite the provisions of paragraph 2, children who have not attained the age of fifteen years take a direct part in hostilities and fall into the power of an adverse Party, they shall continue to benefit from the special protection accorded by this Article, whether or not they are prisoners of war.
4. If arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the armed conflict, children shall be held in quarters separate from the quarters of adults, except where families are accommodated as family units as provided in Article 75, paragraph 5.
5. The death penalty for an offence related to armed conflict shall not be executed on persons who had not attained the age of eighteen years at the time the offence was committed.

Article 78.-Evacuation of children
1. No Party to the conflict shall arrange for the evacuation of children, other than its own nationals, to a foreign country except for a temporary evacuation where compelling reasons of the health or medical treatment of the children or, except in occupied territory, their safety, so require. Where the parents or legal guardians can be found, their written consent to such evacuation is required. If these persons cannot be found, the written consent to such evacuation of the
persons who by law or custom are primarily responsible for the care of the children is required. Any such evacuation shall be supervised by the Protecting Power in agreement with the Parties concerned, namely, the Party arranging for the evacuation, the Party receiving the children and any Parties whose nationals are being evacuated. In each case, all Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible precautions to avoid endangering the evacuation.
2. Whenever an evacuation occurs pursuant to paragraph 1, each child’s education, including his religious and moral education as his parents desire, shall be provided while he is away with the greatest possible continuity.
3. With a view to facilitating the return to their families and country of children evacuated pursuant to this Article, the authorities of the Party ar
ranging for the evacuation and, as appropriate, the authorities of the receiving country shall establish for each child a card with photographs, which they shall send to the Central Tracing Agency of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Each card shall bear, whenever possible, and whenever it involves no risk of harm to the child, the following information:
(a) Surname(s) of the child;
(b) The child’s first name(s);
(c) The child’s sex;
(d) The place and date of birth (or, if that date is not known, the approximate age);
(e) The father’s full name;
(f) The mother’s full name and her maiden name;
(g) The child’s next-of-kin;
(h) The child’s nationality;
(i) The child’s native language, and any other languages he speaks;
(j) The address of the child’s family;
(k) Any identification number for the child;
(I) The child’s state of health;
(m) The child’s blood group;
(n) Any distinguishing features;
(o) The date on which and the place where the child was found;
(p) The date on which and the place from which the child left the country;
(q) The child’s religion, if any;
(r) The child’s present address in the receiving country;
(s) Should the child die before his return, the date, place and circumstances of death and place of interment.
CHAPTER III.-JOURNALISTS

Article 79.-Measures of protection for journalists
1. Journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed conflict shall be considered as civilians within the meaning of Article 50, paragraph 1.
2. They shall be protected as such under the Conventions and this Protocol, provided that they take no action adversely affecting their status as civilians, and without prejudice to the right of war correspondents accredited to the armed forces to the status provided for in Article 4 A (4) of the Third Convention.
3. They may obtain an identity card similar to the model in Annex II of this Protocol. This card, which shall be issued by the government of the State of which the journalist is a national or in whose territory he resides or in which the news medium employing him is located, shall attest to his status as a journalist .

PART V EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTIONS AND OF THIS PROTOCOL
SECTION I._GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 80.-Measures for execution
1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall without delay take all necessary measures for the execution of their obligations under the Conventions and this Protocol.
2. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall give orders and instructions to ensure observance of the Conventions and this Protocol, and shall supervise their execution.

Article 81.-Activities of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations
1. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to the International Committee of the Red Cross all facilities within their power so as to enable it to carry out the humanitarian functions assigned to it by the Conventions and this Protocol in order to ensure protection and assistance to the victims of conflicts; the International Committee of the Red Cross may also carry out any other humanitarian activities in favour of these victims, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned.
2. The Parties to the conflict shall grant to their respective Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations the facilities necessary for carrying out their humanitarian activities in favour of the victims of the conflict, in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.
3. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way the assistance which Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) organizations and the League of Red Cross Societies extend to the victims of conflicts in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol and with the fundamental principles of the Red Cross as formulated by the International Conferences of the Red Cross.
4. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall, as far as possible, make facilities similar to those mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 available to the other humanitarian organizations referred to in the Conventions and this Protocol which are duly authorized by the respective Parties to the conflict and which perform their humanitarian activities in accordance with the provisions of the Conventions and this Protocol.

Article 82.-Legal advisers in armed forces
The High Contracting Parties at all times, and the Parties to the conflict in time of armed conflict, shall ensure that legal advisers are available, when necessary, to advise military commanders at the appropriate level on the application of the Conventions and this Protocol and on the appropriate instruction to be given to the armed forces on this subject.

Article 83.-Dissemination
1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Conventions and this Protocol as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction and to encourage the study thereof by the
civilian population, so that those instruments may become known to the armed forces and to the civilian population.
2 . Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict, assume responsibilities in respect of the application of the Conventions and this Protocol shall be fully acquainted with the text thereof.

Article 84.-Rules of application
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another, as soon as possible, through the depositary and, as appropriate, through the Protecting Powers, their official translations of this Protocol, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure its application.

SECTION II.-REPRESSION OF BREACHES OF THE CONVENTIONS AND OF THIS PROTOCOL

Article 85.-Repression of breaches of this Protocol
1. The provisions of the Conventions relating to the repression of breaches and grave breaches, supplemented by this Section, shall apply to the repression of breaches and grave breaches of this Protocol.
2. Acts described as grave breaches in the Conventions are grave breaches of this Protocol if committed against persons in the power of an adverse Party protected by Articles 44, 45 and 73 of this Protocol, or against the wounded, sick and shipwrecked of the adverse Party who are protected by this Protocol, or against those medical or religious personnel, medical units or medical transports which are under the control of the adverse Party and are protected by this Protocol.
3. In addition to the grave breaches defined in Article 11, the following acts shall be regarded as grave breaches of this Protocol, when committed wilfully, in violation of the relevant provisions of this Protocol, and causing death or serious injury to body or health:
(a) Making the civilian population or individual civilians the object of attack;
(b) Launching an indiscriminate attack affecting the civilian population or civilian objects in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects, as defined in Article 57, paragraph 2 (a) (iii);
(c) Launching an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to
civilians or damage to civilian objects, as defined in Article 57, paragraph 2 (a) (iii);
(d) Making non-defended localities and demilitarized zones the object of attack;
(e) Making a person the object of attack in the knowledge that he is hors de combat;
(f) The perfidious use, in violation of Article 37, of the distinctive emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun or of other protective signs recognized by the Conventions or this Protocol.
4. In addition to the grave breaches defined in the preceding paragraphs and in the Conventions, the following shall be regarded as grave breaches of this Protocol, when committed wilfully and in violation of the Conventions of the Protocol;
(a) The transfer by the Occupying Power of parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory, in violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Convention;
(b) Unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians;
(c) Practices of apartheid and other inhuman and degrading practices involving outrages upon personal dignity, based on racial discrimination;
(d) Making the clearly-recognized historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples and to which special protection has been given by special arrangement, for example, within the framework of a competent international organization, the object of attack, causing as a result extensive destruction thereof, where there is no evidence of the violation by the adverse Party of Article 53, sub-paragraph (b), and when such historic monuments, works of art and places of worship are not located in the immediate proximity of military objectives:
(e) Depriving a person protected by the Conventions or referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article of the rights of fair and regular trial.
5. Without prejudice to the application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, grave breaches of these instruments shall be regarded as war crimes.
Article 86.-Failure to act
1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall repress grave breaches, and take measures necessary to suppress all other breaches, of the
Conventions or of this Protocol which result from a failure to act when under a duty to do so.
2. The fact that a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from penal or disciplinary responsibility, as the case may be, if they knew, or had information which should have enabled them to conclude in the circumstances at the time, that he was committing or was going to commit such a breach and if they did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repress the breach.
Article 87.-Duty of commanders
1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict shall require military commanders, with respect to members of the armed forces under their command and other persons under their control, to prevent and, where necessary, to suppress and to report to competent authorities breaches of the Conventions and of this Protocol.
2. In order to prevent and suppress breaches, High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall require that, commensurate with their level of responsibility, commanders ensure that members of the armed forces under their command are aware of their obligations under the Conventions and this Protocol.
3. The High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall require any commander who is aware that subordinates or other persons under his control are going to commit or have committed a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol, to initiate such steps as are necessary to prevent such violations of the Conventions or this Protocol, and, where appropriate, to initiate disciplinary or penal action against violators thereof.
Article 88.-Mutual assistance in criminal matters
1. The High Contracting Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in connexion with criminal proceedings brought in respect of grave breaches of the Conventions or of this Protocol.
2. Subject to the rights and obligations established in the Conventions and in Article 85, paragraph 1, of this Protocol, and when circumstances permit, the High Contracting Parties shall co-operate in the matter of extradition. They shall give due consideration to the request of the State in whose territory the alleged offence has occurred.
3. The law of the High Contracting Party requested shall apply in all cases. The provisions of the preceding paragraphs shall not, however, affect the obligations arising from the provisions of any other treaty of a bilateral or multilateral nature
which governs or will govern the whole or part of the subject of mutual assistance in criminal matters.
Article 89.-Co-operation
In situations of serious violations of the Conventions or of this Protocol, the High Contracting Parties undertake to act, jointly or individually, in co-operation with the United Nations and in conformity with the United Nations Charter.
Article 90.-International Fact-Finding Commission
1. (a) An International Fact-Finding Commission (hereinafter referred to as “the Commission”) consisting of fifteen members of high moral standing and acknowledged impartiality shall be established.
(b) When not less than twenty High Contracting Parties have agreed to accept the competence of the Commission pursuant to paragraph 2, the depositary shall then, and at intervals of five years thereafter, convene a meeting of representatives of those High Contracting Parties for the purpose of electing the members of the Commission. At the meeting, the representatives shall elect the members of the Commission by secret ballot from a list of person s to which each of those High Contracting Parties may nominate one person.
(c) The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity and shall hold office until the election of new members at the ensuing meeting.
(d) At the election, the High Contracting Parties shall ensure that the persons to be elected to the Commission individually possess the qualifications required and that, in the Commission as a whole, equitable geographical representation is assured.
(e) In the case of a casual vacancy, the Commission itself shall fill the Z vacancy, having due regard to the provisions of the preceding sub paragraphs.
(f) the depositary shall make available to the Commission the necessary administrative facilities for the performance of its functions.
2. (a) The High Contracting Parties may at the time of signing, ratifying or acceding to the Protocol, or at any other subsequent time, declare that they recognize ipsofacto and without special agreement, in relation to any other High Contracting Party accepting the same obligation, the competence of the Commission to enquire into allegations by such other Party, as authorized by this Article.
(b) The declarations referred to above shall be deposited with the depositary, which shall transmit copies thereof to the High Contracting Parties.
(c) The Commission shall be competent to:
(i) Enquire into any facts alleged to be a grave breach as defined in the Conventions and this Protocol or other serious violation of the Conventions or of this Protocol;
(ii) Facilitate, through its good offices, the restoration of an attitude of respect for the Conventions and this Protocol.
(d) In other situations, the Commission shall institute an enquiry at the request of a Party to the conflict only with the consent of the other Party or Parties concerned.
(e) Subject to-the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, the provisions of Article 52 of the First Convention, Article 53 of the Second Convention, Article 132 of the Third Convention and Article 149 of the Fourth Convention shall continue to apply to any alleged violation of the Conventions and shall extend to any alleged violation of this Protocol.
3. (a) Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties concerned, all enquiries shall be undertaken by a Chamber consisting of seven members appointed as follows:
(i) Five members of the Commission, not nationals of any Party to the conflict, appointed by the President of the Commission on the basis of equitable representation of the geographical areas, after consultation with the Parties to the conflict;
(ii) Two ad hoc members, not nationals of any Party to the conflict, one to be appointed by each side.
(b) Upon receipt of the request for an enquiry, the President of the Commission shall specify an appropriate time limit for setting up a Chamber. If any ad hoc member has not been appointed within the time limit, the President shall immediately appoint such additional member or members of the Commission as may be necessary to complete the membership of the Chamber.
4. (a) The Chamber set up under paragraph 3 to undertake an enquiry shall invite the Parties to the conflict to assist it and to present evidence. The Chamber may also seek such other evidence as it deems appropriate and may carry out an investigation of the situation in loco.
(b) All evidence shall be fully disclosed to the Parties, which shall have the right to comment on it to the Commission.
(c) Each Party shall have the right to challenge such evidence.
5. (a) The Commission shall submit to the Parties a report on the findings of fact of the Chamber, with such recommendations as it may deem appropriate.
(b) If the Chamber is unable to secure sufficient evidence for factual and impartial findings, the Commission shall state the reasons for that inability.
(c) The Commission shall not report its findings publicly, unless all the Parties to the conflict have requested the Commission to do so.
6. The Commission shall establish its own rules, including rules for the presidency of the Commission and the presidency of the Chamber. Those rules shall ensure that the functions of the President of the Commission are exercised at all times and that, in the case of an enquiry, they are exercised by a person who is not a national of a Party to the conflict.
7. The administrative expenses of the Commission shall be met by contributions from the High Contracting Parties which made declarations under paragraph 2, and by voluntary contributions. The Party or Parties to the conflict requesting an enquiry shall advance the necessary funds for expenses incurred by a Chamber and shall be reimbursed by the Party or Parties against which the allegations are made to the extent of fifty per cent of the costs of the Chamber. Where there are counter-allegations before the Chamber each side shall advance fifty per cent of the necessary funds.
Article 91.-Responsibility
A Party to the conflict which violates the provisions of the Conventions or of this Protocol shall, if the case demands, be liable to pay compensation. It shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part of its armed forces.
PART VI FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 92.-Signature
This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Parties to the Conventions six months after the signing of the Final Act and will remain open for a period of twelve months.
Article 93.-Ratification
This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the Conventions.
Article 94.-Accession
This Protocol shall be open for accession by any Party to the Conventions which has not signed it. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.
Article 95.-Entry into force
1. This Protocol shall enter into force six months after two instruments of ratification or accession have been deposited.
2. For each Party to the Conventions thereafter ratifying or acceding to this Protocol, it shall enter into force six months after the deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification or accession.
Article 96.-Treaty relations upon entry into force of this Protocol
1. When the Parties to the Conventions are also Parties to this Protocol, the Conventions shall apply as supplemented by this Protocol.
2. When one of the Parties to the conflict is not bound by this Protocol, the Parties to the Protocol shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by this Protocol in relation to each of the Parties which are not bound by it, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
3. The authority representing a people engaged against a High Contracting Party in an armed conflict of the type referred to in Article 1, paragraph 4, may undertake to apply the Conventions and this Protocol in relation to that conflict by means of a unilateral declaration addressed to the depositary. Such declaration shall, upon its receipt by the depositary, have in relation to that conflict the following effects:
(a) The Conventions and this Protocol are brought into force for the said authority as a Party to the conflict with immediate effect;
(b) The said authority assumes the same rights and obligations as those which have been assumed by a High Contracting Party to the Conventions and this Protocol; and
(c) The Conventions and this Protocol are equally binding upon all Parties to the conflict.
Article 97.-Amendment
1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the depositary, which shall decide, after consultation with all the High Contracting Parties and the
International Committee of the Red Cross, whether a conference should be convened to consider the proposed amendment.
2. The depositary shall invite to that conference all the High Contracting Parties as well as the Parties to the Conventions, whether or not they are signatories of this Protocol.
Article 98.-Revision of Annex l
1. Not later than four years after the entry into force of this Protocol and thereafter at intervals of not less than four years, the International Committee of the Red Cross shall consult the High Contracting Parties concerning Annex I to this Protocol and, if it considers it necessary, may propose a meeting of technical experts to review Annex I and to propose such amendments to it as may appear to be desirable. Unless, within six months of the communication of a proposal for such a meeting to the High Contracting Parties, one third of them object, the International Committee of the Red Cross shall convene the meeting, inviting also observers of appropriate international organizations. Such a meeting shall also be convened by the International Committee of the Red Cross at any time at the request of one third of the High Contracting Parties.
2. The depositary shall convene a conference of the High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the Conventions to consider amendments proposed by the meeting of technical experts if, after that meeting, the International Committee of the Red Cross or one third of the High Contracting Parties so request.
3. Amendments to Annex I may be adopted at such a conference by a two-thirds majority of the High Contracting Parties present and voting.
4. The depositary shall communicate any amendment so adopted to the High Contracting Parties and to the Parties to the Conventions. The amendment shall be considered to have been accepted at the end of a period
of one year after it has been so communicated, unless within that period a declaration of non-acceptance of the amendment has been communicated to the depositary by not less than one third of the High Contracting Parties.
5. An amendment considered to have been accepted in accordance with paragraph 4 shall enter into force three months after its acceptance for all High Contracting Parties other than those which have made a declaration of non-acceptance in accordance with that paragraph. Any Party making such a declaration may at any time withdraw it and the amendment shall then enter into force for that Party three months thereafter.
6. The depositary shall notify the High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the Conventions of the entry into force of any amendment, of the Parties bound
thereby, of the date of its entry into force in relation to each Party, of declarations of non-acceptance made in accordance with paragraph 4, and of withdrawals of such declarations.
Article 99.-Denunciation
1. In case a High Contracting Party should denounce this Protocol, the denunciation shall only take effect one year after receipt of the instrument of denunciation. If, however, on the expiry of that year the denouncing Party is engaged in one of the situations referred to in Article 1, the denunciation shall not take effect before the end of the armed conflict or occupation and not, in any case, before operations connected with the final release, repatriation or re-establishment of the persons protected by the Conventions or this Protocol have been terminated.
2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary, which shall transmit it to all the High Contracting Parties.
3. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Party.
4. Any denunciation under paragraph I shall not affect the obligations already incurred, by reason of the armed conflict, under this Protocol by such denouncing Party in respect of any act committed before this denunciation becomes effective.
Article 100.-Notifications
The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties as well as the Parties to the Conventions, whether or not they are signatories of this Protocol, of:
(a) Signatures affixed to this Protocol and the deposit of instruments of ratification and accession under Articles 93 and 94;
(b) The date of entry into force of this Protocol under Article 95;
(c) Communications and declarations received under Articles 84, 90 and 97.
(d) Declarations received under Article 96, paragraph 3, which shall be communicated by the quickest methods; and
(e) Denunciations under Article 99.
Article 101.-Registration
l. After its entry into force, this Protocol shall be transmitted by the depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication, in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
2. The depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to this Protocol.
Article 102.-Authentic texts
The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the depositary, which shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Parties to the Conventions.
ANNEX I
Regulations concerning identification
CHAPTER 1.-IDENTITY CARDS
Article I .-Identity card for permanent civilian medical and religious personnel
1. The identity card for permanent civilian medical and religious personnel referred to in Article 18, paragraph 3, of the Protocol should:
(a) Bear the distinctive emblem and be of such size that it can be carried in the pocket;
(b) Be as durable as practicable;
(c) Be worded in the national or official language (and may in addition be worded in other languages);
(d) Mention the name, the date of birth (or, if that date is not available, the age at the time of issue) and the identity number, if any, of the holder,
(c) State in what capacity the holder is entitled to the protection of the Conventions and of the Protocol;
(f) Bear the photograph of the holder as well as his signature or this thumbprint, or both;
(g) Bear the stamp and signature of the competent authority;
(h) State the date of issue and date of expiry of the card.
2. The identity card shall be uniform throughout the territory of each High Contracting Party and, as far as possible, of the same type for all Parties to the
conflict. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the single-language model shown in Figure 1. At the outbreak of hostilities, they shall transmit to each other a specimen of the model they are using, if such model differs from that shown in Figure 1. The identity card shall be made out, if possible, in duplicate, one copy being kept by the issuing authority, which should maintain control of the cards which it has issued.
3. In no circumstances may permanent civilian medical and religious personnel be deprived of their identity cards. In the event of the loss of a card, they shall be entitled to obtain a duplicate copy.
Article 2.-Identity card for temporary civilian medical and religious personnel
1. The identity card for temporary civilian medical and religious personnel should, whenever possible, be similar to that provided for in Article I of these Regulations. The Parties to the conflict may be guided by the model shown in Figure 1.
2. When circumstances preclude the provision to temporary civilian medical and religious personnel of identity cards similar to those described in Article I of these Regulations, the said personnel may be provided with a certificate signed by the competent authority certifying that the person to whom it is issued is assigned to duty as temporary personnel and stating, if possible, the duration of such assignment and his right to wear the distinctive emblem. The certificate should mention the holder’s name and date of birth (or if that date is not available, his age at the time when the certificate was issued), his function and identity number, if any. It shall bear his signature or his thumbprint, or both.
CHAPTER 11.-THE DlSTINCTIVE EMBLEM
Article 3.-Shape and nature
1. The distinctive emblem (red on a white ground) shall be as large as appropriate under the circumstances. For the shapes of the cross, the crescent or the lion and sun, the High Contracting Parties may be guided by the models shown in Figure 2.
2. At night or when visibility is reduced, the distinctive emblem may be lighted or illuminated; it may also be made of materials rendering it recognizable by technical means of detection.
Article 4.-Use
1. The distinctive emblem shall, whenever possible, be displayed on a flat surface or on flags visible from as many directions and from as far away as possible.
2. Subject to the instructions of the competent authority, medical and religious personnel carrying out their duties in the battle area shall, as far as possible, wear headgear and
clothing bearing the distinctive emblem.
CHAPTER 111.-DISTINCTIVE SIGNALS
Article 5.-Optional Use
1. Subject to the provisions of Article 6 of these Regulations, the signals specified in this Chapter for exclusive use by medical units and transports shall nol be used for any other purpose. The use of all signals referred to in this Chapter is optional.
2. Temporary medical aircraft which cannot, either for lack of time or because of their characteristics, be marked with the distinctive emblem, may use the distinctive signals authorized in this Chapter. The best method of effective identification and recognition of medical aircraft is, however, the use of a visual signal, either the distinctive emblem or the light signal specified in Article 6, or both, supplemented by the other signals referred to in Articles 7 and 8 of these Regulations .
Article 6.-Light signal
1. The light signal, consisting of a flashing blue light. is established for the use of medical aircraft to signal their identity. No other aircraft shall use this signal. The recommended blue colour is obtained by using, as trichromatic co-ordinates:
green boundary y = 0.065 + 0.805x
white boundary y = 0.400 – x
purple boundary x = 0.133 + 0.600y
The recommended flashing rate of the blue light is between sixty and one hundred flashes per minute.
2. Medical aircraft should be equipped with such lights as may be necessary to make the light signal visible in as many directions as possible.
3. In the absence of a special agreement between the Parties to the conflict reserving the use of flashing blue lights for the identification of medical vehicles and ships and craft, the use of such signals for other vehicles or ships is not prohibited.
Article 7.-Radio signal
1. The radio signal shall consist of a radiotelephonic or radiotelegraphic message preceded by a distinctive priority signal to be designated and approved by a World Administrative Radio Conference of the International Telecommunication Union. It shall be transmitted three times before the call sign of the medical transport involved. This message shall be transmitted in English at appropriate intervals on a frequency or frequencies specified pursuant to paragraph 3. The use of the priority signal shall be restricted exclusively to medical units and transports.
2. The radio message preceded by the distinctive priority signal mentioned in paragraph I shall convey the following data:
(a) Call sign of the medical transport;
(b) Position of the medical transport;
(c) Number and type of medical transports;
(d) Intended route;
(e) Estimated time en route and of departure and arrival, as appropriate;
(f) Any other information such as flight altitude, radio frequencies guarded, languages and secondary surveillance radar modes and codes.
3. In order to facilitate the communications referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, as well as the communications referred to in Articles 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 of the Protocol, the High Contracting Parties, the Parties to a conflict, or one of the Parties to a conflict, acting in agreement or alone, may designate, in accordance with the Table of Frequency Allocations in the Radio Regulations annexed to the International Telecommunication Convention, and publish selected national frequencies to be used by them for such communications. These frequencies shall be notified to the International Telecommunication Union in accordance with procedures to be approved by a World Administrative Radio Conference.
Article 8.-Electronic identification
1. The Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) system, as specified in Annex 10 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended from time to time, may be used to identify and to follow the course of medical aircraft. The SSR mode and code to be reserved for the exclusive use of medical aircraft shall be established by the High Contracting Parties, the Parties to a conflict, or one of the Parties to a conflict, acting in agreement or alone, in accordance with procedures to be recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization.
2. Parties to a conflict may, by special agreement between them, establish for their use a similar electronic system for the identification of medical vehicles, and medical ships and craft.

CHAPTER IV.-COMMUNICATIONS

Article 9.-Radiocommunications
The priority signal provided for in Article 7 of these Regulations may precede appropriate radiocommunications by medical units and transports in the application of the procedures carried out under Articles 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 of the Protocol.
Article 10.-Use of international codes
Medical units and transports may also use the codes and signals laid down by the International Telecommunication Union, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. These codes and signals shall be used in accordance with the standards, practices and procedures established by these Organizations.
Article 11.-Other means of communication
When two-way radiocommunication is not possible, the signals provided for in the International Code of Signals adopted by the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization or in the appropriate Annex to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended from time to time, may be used.
Article 12.-Flight plans
The agreements and notifications relating to flight plans provided for in Article 29 of the Protocol shall as far as possible be formulated in accordance with procedures laid down by the International Civil Aviation Organization.
Article 13.-Signals and procedures for the interception of medical aircraft
If an intercepting aircraft is used to verify the identity of a medical aircraft in flight or to require it to land in accordance with Anicles 30 and 31 of the Protocol, the standard visual and radio interception procedures prescribed by Annex 2 to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, as amended from time to time, should be used by the intercepting and the medical aircraft.

CHAPTER V.-CIVIL DEFENCE

Article 14.-Identity card
1. The identity card of the civil defence personnel provided for in Article 66. paragraph 3, of the Protocol is governed by the relevant provisions of Article I of these Regulations.
2. The identity card for civil defence personnel may follow the model shown in Figure 3.
3. If civil defence personnel are permitted to carry light individual weapons, an entry to that effect should be made on the card mentioned.
Article 15.-International distinctive sign
1. The international distinctive sign of civil defence provided for in Article 66, paragraph 4, of the Protocol is an equilateral blue triangle on an orange ground. A model is shown in Figure 4:
2. It is recommended that:
(a) If the blue triangle is on a flag or armlet or tabard. the ground to the triangle be the orange flag, armlet or tabard;
(b) One of the angles of the triangle be pointed vertically upwards;
(c) No angle of the triangle touch the edge of the orange ground.
3. The international distinctive sign shall be as large as appropriate under the circumstances. The distinctive sign shall, whenever possible, be displayed on flat surfaces or on flags visible from as many directions and from as far away as possible. Subject to the instructions of the competent authority, civil defence personnel shall, as far as possible, wear headgear and clothing bearing the international distinctive sign. At night or when visibility is reduced, the sign may be lighted or illuminated; it may also be made of materials rendering it recognizable by technical means of detection.

CHAPTER VI.-WORKS AND INSTALLATIONS CONTAINING DANGEROUS FORCES

Article 16.-International special sign
1. The international special sign for works and installations containing dangerous forces, as provided for in Article 56, paragraph 7, of the Protocol. shall be a group of three bright orange circles of equal size, placed on the same axis, the distance between each circle being one radius, in accordance with Figure 5 illustrated below.
2. The sign shall be as large as appropriate under the circumstances. When displayed over an extended surface it may be repeated as often as appropriate under the circumstances. It shall, whenever possible, be displayed on flat surfaces or on flags so as to be visible from as many directions and from as far away as possible.
3. On a flag, the distance between the outer limits of the sign and the adjacent sides of the flag shall be one radius of a circle. The flag shall be rectangular and shall have a white ground.
4. At night or when visibility is reduced, the sign may be lighted or illuminated. It may also be made of materials rendering it recognizable by technical means of detection.

undang-undang fidusia

UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 42 TAHUN 1999
TENTANG JAMINAN FIDUSIA

BAB I

KETENTUAN UMUM
Pasal 1
Dalam Undang-undang ini yang dimaksud dengan:
1. Fidusia adalah pengalihan hak kepemilikan suatu benda atas dasar kepercayaan dengan ketentuan bahwa benda yang hak kepemilikannya dialihkan tersebut tetap dalam penguasaan pemilik benda.
2. Jaminan Fidusia adalah hak jaminan atas benda bergerak baik yang berwujud
maupun yang tidak berwujud dan benda tidak bergerak khususnya bangunan yang tidak dapat dibebani hak tanggungan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1996 tentang Hak Tanggungan yang tetap berada dalam penguasaan Pemberi Fidusia, sebagai agunan bagi pelunasan utang tertentu, yang memberikan kedudukan yang diutamakan kepada Penerima Fidusia terhadap kreditor lainnya.
3. Piutang adalah hak untuk menerima pembayaran.
4. Benda adalah segala sesuatu yang dapat dimiliki dan dialihkan, baik yang berwujud maupun yang tidak berwujud, yang terdaftar maupun yang tidak terdaftar, yang bergerak maupun yang tak bergerak yang tidak dapat dibebani hak tanggungan atau hipotek.
5. Pemberi Fidusia adalah orang perseorangan atau korporasi pemilik Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
6. Penerima Fidusia adalah orang perseorangan atau korporasi yang mempunyai piutang yang pembayarannya dijamin dengan Jaminan Fidusia.
7. Utang adalah kewajiban yang dinyatakan atau dapat dinyatakan dalam jumlah uang baik dalam mata uang Indonesia atau mata uang lainnya, baik secara langsung maupun kontinjen.
8. Kreditor adalah pihak yang mempunyai piutang karena perjanjian atau undang- undang.
9. Debitor adalah pihak yang mempunyai utang karena perjanjian atau undang-undang.
10. Setiap Orang adalah orang perseorangan atau korporasi.
BAB II

RUANG LINGKUP
Pasal 2
Undang-undang ini berlaku terhadap setiap perjanjian yang bertujuan untuk membebani
Benda dengan Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 3
Undang-undang ini tidak berlaku terhadap :
1. Hak Tanggungan yang berkaitan dengan tanah dan bangunan, sepanjang peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku menentukan jaminan atas benda-benda tersebut wajib didaftar;
2. Hipotek atas kapal yang terdaftar dengan isi kotor berukuran 20 (dua puluh) M3 atau lebih;
3. Hipotek atas pesawat terbang; dan
4. Gadai.
BAB III
PEMBEBANAN, PENDAFTARAN, PENGALIHAN, DAN HAPUSNYA JAMINAN FIDUSIA

Bagian Pertama
Pembebanan Jaminan Fidusia

Pasal 4
Jaminan Fidusia merupakan perjanjian ikutan dan suatu perjanjian pokok yang menimbulkan kewajiban bagi para pihak untuk memenuhi suatu prestasi.
Pasal 5
(1) Pembebanan Benda dengan Jaminan Fidusia dibuat dengan akta notaris dalam bahasa
Indonesia dan merupakan akta Jaminan Fidusia.
(2) Terhadap pembuatan akta Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1), dikenakan biaya yang besarnya diatur lebih lanjut dengan Peraturan Pemerintah.
Pasal 6
Akta Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 5 sekurang-kurangnya memuat :
a. identitas pihak Pemberi dan Penerima Fidusia;
b. data perjanjian pokok yang dijamin fidusia;
c. uraian mengenai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia;
d. nilai penjaminan; dan
e. nilai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 7
Utang yang pelunasannya dijamin dengan fidusia dapat berupa:
a. utang yang telah ada;
b. utang yang akan timbul di kemudian hari yang telah diperjanjikan dalam jumlah tertentu; atau
c. utang yang pada saat eksekusi dapat ditentukan jumlahnya berdasarkan perjanjian pokok yang menimbulkan kewajiban memenuhi suatu prestasi.
Pasal 8
Jaminan Fidusia dapat diberikan kepada lebih dari satu Penerima Fidusia atau kepada kuasa atau wakil dan Penerima Fidusia tersebut.
Pasal 9
(1) Jaminan Fidusia dapat memberikan terhadap satu atau lebih satuan atau jenis Benda, termasuk piutang, baik yang telah ada pada saat jaminan diberikan maupun yang diperoleh kemudian.
(2) Pembebanan jaminan atas Benda atau piutang yang diperoleh kemudian sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) tidak perlu dilakukan dengan perjanjian jaminan tersendiri.
Pasal 10
Kecuali diperjanjikan lain:
a. Jaminan Fidusia meliputi hasil dari Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
b. Jaminan Fidusia meliputi klaim asuransi, dalam hal Benda yang menjadi objek
Jaminan Fidusia diasuransikan.
Bagian Kedua
Pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia

Pasal 11
(1) Benda yang dibebani dengan Jaminan Fidusia wajib didaftarkan.
(2) Dalam hal Benda yang dibebani dengan Jaminan Fidusia berada di luar wilayah negara
Republik Indonesia, kewajiban sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) tetap berlaku.
Pasal 12
(1) Pendaftanan Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 11 ayat (1) dilakukan pada Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia.
(2) Untuk pertama kali, Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia didinikan di Jakarta dengan wilayah kerja mencakup seluruh wilayah negara Republik Indonesia.
(3) Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (2) berada dalam lingkup tugas Departemen Kehakiman.
(4) Ketentuan mengenai pembentukan Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia untuk daerah lain dan penetapan wilayah kerjanya diatur dengan Keputusan Presiden.
Pasal 13
(1) Permohonan pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia dilakukan oleh Penerima Fidusia, kuasa atau wakilnya dengan melampirkan pernyataan pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia.
(2) Pernyataan pendaftaran sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) memuat :
a. identitas pihak Pemberi dan Penerima Fidusia;
b. tanggal, nomor akta Jaminan Fidusia, nama, dan tempat kedudukan notaris yang memuat akta Jaminan Fidusia;
c. data perjanjian pokok yang dijamin fidusia;
d. uraian mengenai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia;
e. nilai penjaminan; dan
f. nilai Benda yang menjadi obyek Jaminan Fidusia.
(3) Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia mencatat Jaminan Fidusia dalam Buku Daftar Fidusia pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanggal penerimaan pendaftaran.
(4) Ketentuan lebih lanjut mengenai tata cara pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia dan biaya pendaftaran diatur dengan Peraturan Pemerintah.
Pasal 14
(1) Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia menerbitkan dan menyerahkan kepada Penerima Fidusia Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanggal penerimaan permohonan pendaftaran.
(2) Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia yang merupakan salinan dari Buku Daftar Fidusia memuat catatan tentang hal-hal sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 13 ayat (2).
(3) Jaminan Fidusia lahir pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanggal dicatatnya Jaminan Fidusia dalam Buku Daftar Fidusia.
Pasal 15
(1) Dalam Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 14 ayat (1)
dicantumkan kata-kata “DEMI KEADILAN BERDASARKAN KETUHANAN YANG MAHA ESA”.
(2) Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) mempunyai kekuatan eksekutorial yang sama dengan putusan pengadilan yang telah memperoleh kekuatan hukum tetap.
(3) Apabila debitor cidera janji, Penerima Fidusia mempunyai hak untuk menjual Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia atas kekuasaannya sendiri.
Pasal 16
(1) Apabila terjadi perubahan mengenai hal-hal yang tercantum dalam Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 14 ayat (2), Penerima Fidusia wajib mengajukan permohonan pendaftaran atas perubahan tersebut kepada Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia.
(2) Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanggal penerimaan permohonan perubahan, melakukan pencatatan perubahan tersebut dalam buku Daftar
Fidusia dan menerbitkan Pernyataan Perubahan yang merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dan
Sertifikat Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 17
Pemberi Fidusia dilarang melakukan fidusia ulang terhadap Benda yang menjadi objek
Jaminan Fidusia yang sudah terdaftar.
Pasal 18
Segala keterangan mengenai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang ada pada
Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia terbuka untuk umum.
Bagian Ketiga
Pengalihan Jaminan Fidusia

Pasal 19
(1) Pengalihan hak atas piutang yang dijamin dengan fidusia mengakibatkan beralihnya demi hukum segala hak dan kewajiban Penerima Fidusia kepada kreditor baru.
(2) Beralihnya Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) didaftarkan oleh kreditor baru kepada Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia.
Pasal 20
Jaminan Fidusia tetap mengikuti Benda yang menjadi objek jaminan Fidusia dalam tangan siapapun Benda tersebut berada, kecuali pengalihan atas benda persediaan yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 21
(1) Pemberi Fidusia dapat mengalihkan benda persediaan yang menjadi objek Jaminan
Fidusia demgan cara dan prosedur yang lazim dilakukan dalam usaha perdagangan.
(2) Ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) tidak berlaku, apabila telah terjadi cidera janji oleh debitor dan atau Pemberi Fidusia pihak ketiga.
(3) Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang telah dialihkan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) wajib diganti oleh Pemberi Fidusia dengan objek yang setara.
(4) Dalam hal Pemberi Fidusia cidera janji, maka hasil pengalihan dan atau tagihan yang
timbul karena pengalihan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1), demi hukum menjadi objek
Jaminan Fidusia pengganti dan objek Jaminan Fidusia yang dialihkan.
Pasal 22
Pembeli benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang merupakan benda persediaan
bebas dari tuntutan meskipun pembeli tersebut mengetahui tentang adanya Jaminan Fidusia itu, dengan ketentuan bahwa pembeli telah membayar lunas harga penjualan Benda tersebut
sesuai dengan harga pasar.
Pasal 23
(1) Dengan tidak mengurangi ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 21, apabila Penerima Fidusia setuju bahwa Pemberi Fidusia dapat menggunakan, menggabungkan, mencampur, atau mengalihkan Benda atau hasil dari Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan
Fidusia, atau menyetujui melakukan penagihan atau melakukan kompromi atas piutang, maka persetujuan tersebut tidak berarti bahwa Penerima Fidusia melepaskan Jaminan Fidusia.
(2) Pemberi Fidusia dilarang mengalihkan, menggadaikan, atau menyewakan kepada pihak lain Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang tidak merupakan benda persediaan, kecuali dengan persetujuan tertulis terlebih dahulu dari Penerima Fidusia.
Pasal 24
Penerima Fidusia tidak menanggung kewajiban atas akibat tindakan atau kelalaian Pemberi Fidusia baik yang timbul dan hubungan kontraktual atau yang timbul dari perbuatan melanggar hukum sehubungan dengan penggunaan dan pengalihan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Bagian Keempat
Hapusnya Jaminan Fidusia

Pasal 25
(1) Jaminan Fidusia hapus karena hal-hal sebagai berikut :
a. hapusnya utang yang dijamin dengan fidusia;
b. pelepasan hak atas Jaminan Fidusia oleh Penerima Fidusia; atau c. musnahnya Benda yang menjadi obyek Jaminan Fidusia.
(2) Musnahnya benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia tidak menghapuskan klaim asuransi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 10 huruf b.
(3) Penerima Fidusia memberitahukan kepada Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia mengenai hapusnya Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) dengan melampirkan
pernyataan mengenai hapusnya utang, pelepasan hak, atau musnahnya Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia tersebut.
Pasal 26
(1) Dengan hapusnya Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 25, Kantor
Pendaftaran Fidusia mencoret pencatatan Jaminan Fidusia dan Buku Daftar Fidusia.
(2) Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia menerbitkan surat keterangan yang menyatakan Sertifikat
Jaminan Fidusia yang bersangkutan tidak berlaku lagi.
BAB IV

HAK MENDAHULUI

Pasal 27
(1) Penerima Fidusia memiliki hak yang didahulukan terhadap kreditor lainnya.
(2) Hak yang didahulukan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) adalah hak Penerima Fidusia untuk mengambil pelunasan piutangnya atas hasil eksekusi Benda yang menjadi objek jaminan Fidusia.
(3) Hak yang didahulukan dari Penerima Fidusia tidak hapus karena adanya kepailitan dan atau likuidasi Pemberi Fidusia.
Pasal 28
Apabila atas Benda yang sama menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang lebih dari 1(satu)
perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia, maka hak yang didahulukan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal
27, diberikan kepada pihak yang lebih dahulu mendaftarkannya pada Kantor Pendaftaran
Fidusia.
BAB V

EKSEKUSI JAMINAN FIDUSIA

Pasal 29
(1) Apabila debitor atau Pemberi Fidusia cidera janji, eksekusi terhadap Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia dapat dilakukan dengan cara :
a. pelaksanaan titel eksekutorial sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 15 ayat (2) oleh
Penerima Fidusia;
b. penjualan benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia atas kekuasaan Penerima Fidusia sendiri melalui pelelangan umum serta mengambil pelunasan piutangnya dari hasil penjualan;
c. penjualan di bawah tangan yang dilakukan berdasarkan kesepakatan Pemberi dan Penerima Fidusia jika dengan cara demikian dapat diperoleh harga tertinggi yang menguntungkan para pihak.
(2) Pelaksanaan penjualan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) huruf c dilakukan setelah lewat waktu 1 (satu) bulan sejak diberitahukan secara tertulis oleh Pemberi dan Penerima Fidusia kepada pihak-pibak yang berkepentingan dan diumumkan sedikitnya dalam 2 (dua) surat kabar yang beredar di daerah yang bersangkutan.
Pasal 30
Pemberi Fidusia wajib menyerahkan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia dalam rangka pelaksanaan eksekusi Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 31
Dalam hal Benda yang menjadi objek Jamiman Fidusia terdiri atas benda perdagangan atau
efek yang dapat dijual di pasar atau di bursa, penjualannya dapat dilakukan di tempat-tempat
tersebut sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.
Pasal 32
Setiap janji untuk melaksanakan eksekusi terhadap Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia dengan cara yang bertentangan dengan ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 29 dan Pasal 31, batal demi hukum.
Pasal 33
Setiap janji yang memberi kewenangan kepada Penerima Fidusia untuk memiliki Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia apabila debitor cidera janji, batal demi hukum.
Pasal 34
(1) Dalam hal hasil eksekusi melebihi nilai penjaminan, Penerima Fidusia wajib mengembalikan kelebihan tersebut kepada Pemberi Fidusia.
(2) Apabila hasil eksekusi tidak mencukupi untuk pelunasan utang debitor tetap bertanggung jawab atas utang yang belum terbayar.

BAB VI

KETENTUAN PIDANA
Pasal 35
Setiap orang yang dengan sengaja memalsukan, mengubah, menghilangkan atau dengan
cara apapun memberikan keterangan secara menyesatkan, yang jika hal tersebut diketahui oleh salah satu pihak tidak melahirkan perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia, dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling singkat 1 (satu) tahun dan paling lama 5 (lima) tahun dan denda paling sedikit Rp. 10.000.000,- (sepuluh juta rupiah) dan paling banyak Rp. 100.000.000,- (seratus juta
rupiah).
Pasal 36
Pemberi Fidusia yang mengalihkan, menggadaikan, atau menyewakan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 23 ayat (2) yang dilakukan tanpa persetujuan tertulis terlebih dahulu dari Penerima Fidusia, dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 2 (dua) tahun dan denda paling banyak Rp. 50.000.000,- (lima puluh juta) rupiah.

BAB VII

KETENTUAN PERALIHAN
Pasal 37
(1) Pembebanan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia yang telah ada sebelum
berlakunya Undang-undang ini, tetap berlaku sepanjang tidak bertentangan dengan Undang- undang ini.
(2) Dalam jangka waktu selambat-lambatnya 60 (enam puluh) hari terhitung sejak berdirinya Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia, semua perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia harus sesuai dengan ketentuan dalam Undang-undang ini, kecuali ketentuan mengenai kewajiban pembuatan akta Jaminan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 5 ayat (1).
(3) Jika dalam jangka waktu sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (2) tidak dilakukan penyesuaian, maka perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia tersebut bukan merupakan hak agunan atas kebendaan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Undang-undang ini.
Pasal 38
Sepanjang tidak bertentangan dengan ketentuan dalam Undang-undang ini, semua peraturan perundang-undangan mengenai fidusia tetap berlaku sampai dengan dicabut, diganti, atau diperbaharui.
BAB VIII KETENTUAN PENUTUP
Pasal 39
Kantor Pendaftanan Fidusia sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 12 ayat (2) dibentuk dalam jangka waktu paling lambat 1 (satu) tahun setelah Undang-undang ini diundangkan.
Pasal 40
Undang-undang ini disebut Undang-undang Fidusia.
Pasal 41
Undang-undang ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal diundangkan.
Agar setiap orang mengetahuinya, memerintahkan pengundangan Undang-undang ini dengan penempatannya dalam Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia.
Disahkan di Jakarta
pada tanggal 30 September 1999
PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA, ttd
BACHRUDDIN JUSUF HABIBIE
Diundangkan di Jakarta
pada tanggal 30 September 1999
MENTERI NEGARA SEKRETARIS NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA.
ttd

MULADI

LEMBARAN NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA TAHUN 1999 NOMOR 168

PENJELASAN
UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 42 TAHUN 1999
TENTANG JAMINAN FIDUSIA

I. UMUM
1. Pembangunan ekonomi, sebagai bagian dari pembangunan nasional, merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mencapai masyarakat yang adil dan makmur berdasarkan Pancasila dan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945. Dalam rangka memelihara dan meneruskan pembangunan yang berkesinambungan, para pelaku pembangunan
baik pemerintah rnaupun masyarakat, baik perseorangan maupun badan hukum, memerlukan dana yang besar. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kegiatan
pembangunan, meningkat pula kebutuhan terhadap pendanaan, yang sebagian besar dana yang diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut diperoleh melalui
kegiatan pinjam meminjam.
2. Selama ini, kegiatan pinjam-meminjam dengan menggunakan hak tanggungan atau hak jaminan telah diatur dalam Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1996 tentang Hak Tanggungan yang merupakan pelaksanaan dari Pasal 51 Undang-undang Nomor 5
Tahun 1960 tentang Undang-undang Pokok Agraria, dan sekaligus sebagai pengganti dan lembaga Hipotek atas tanah dan credietverband. Di samping itu, hak jaminan lainnya yang banyak digunakan pada dewasa ini adalah Gadai, Hipotek selain tanah, dan Jaminan Fidusia. Undang-undang yang berkaitan dengan Jaminan Fidusia adalah Pasal 15 Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1992 tentang Perumahan dan Pemukiman, yang menentukan bahwa rumah-rumah yang dibangun di atas tanah yang dimiliki
oleh pihak lain dapat dibebani dengan Jaminan Fidusia. Selain itu, Undang-undang Nomor 16 Tahun 1985 tentang Rumah Susun mengatur mengenai hak milik atas satuan rumah susun yang dapat dijadikan jaminan utang dengan dibebani fidusia, jika
tanahnya tanah hak pakai atas tanah negara.
Jaminan Fidusia telah digunakan di Indonesia sejak zaman penjajahan Belanda sebagai suatu bentuk jaminan yang lahir dari yurisprudensi. Bentuk jaminan ini digunakan secara luas dalam transaksi pinjam-meminjam karena proses pembebanannya dianggap sederhana, mudah, dan cepat, tetapi tidak menjamin adanya kepastian hukum.
Lembaga Jaminan Fidusia memungkinkan kepada para Pemberi Fidusia untuk menguasai Benda yang dijaminkan, untuk melakukan kegiatan usaha yang dibiayai dari pinjaman dengan menggunakan Jaminan Fidusia. Pada awalnya, Benda yang
menjadi objek fidusia terbatas pada kekayaan benda bergerak yang berwujud dalam bentuk peralatan. Akan tetapi dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, Benda yang menjadi objek Fidusia termasuk juga kekayaan benda bergerak yang tak berwujud, maupun benda tak bergerak.
3. Undang-undang ini, dimaksudkan untuk menampung kebutuhan masyarakat mengenai pengaturan Jaminan Fidusia sebagai salah satu sarana untuk membantu kegiatan usaha dan untuk berkepentingan.
Seperti telah dijelaskan bahwa Jaminan Fidusia memberikan kemudahan bagi para pihak yang menggunakannya, khususnya bagi Pemberi Fidusia. Namun sebaiknya karena Jaminan Fidusia tidak didaftarkan, kurang menjamin kepentingan pihak yang menerima fidusia. Pemberi Fidusia mungkin saja menjaminkan benda yang telah dibebani dengan fidusia kepada pihak lain tanpa sepengetahuan Penerima Fidusia.
Sebelum Undang-undang ini dibentuk, pada umumnya Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia adalah benda bergerak yang terdiri dari benda dalam persediaan (inventory), benda dagangan, piutang, peralatan mesin, dan kendaraan bermotor. Oleh karena itu, guna memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat yang terus berkembang, maka menurut Undang-undang ini objek Jaminan Fidusia diberikan pengertian yang luas yaitu benda bergerak yang berwujud maupun tak berwujud, dan benda tak bergerak yang tidak dapat dibebani dengan hak tanggungan sebagaimana
ditentukan dalam Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1996 tentang Hak Tanggungan. Dalam Undang-undang ini, diatur tentang pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia guna
memberikan kepastian hukum kepada para pihak yang berkepentingan dan pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia memberikan hak yang didahulukan (preferen) kepada Penerima Fidusia terhadap kreditor lain. Karena Jaminan Fidusia memberikan hak kepada pihak Pemberi Fidusia untuk tetap menguasai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia berdasarkan kepercayaan, maka diharapkan sistem pendaftaran
yang diatur dalam Undang-undang ini dapat memberikan jaminan kepada pihak
Penerima Fidusia dan pihak yang mempunyai kepentingan terhadap Benda tersebut.
PASAL DEMI PASAL Pasal 1
Cukup jelas
Pasal 2
Cukup jelas
Pasal 3
Huruf a
Berdasarkan ketentuan ini, maka bangunan di atas tanah milik orang lain yang tidak dapat dibebani dengan hak tanggungan berdasarkan Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1996 tentang Hak Tanggungan, dapat dijadikan objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Huruf b
Cukup jelas
Huruf c
Cukup jelas
Huruf d
Cukup jelas
Pasal 4
Yang dimaksud dengan “prestasi” dalam ketentuan ini adalah memberikan sesuatu, berbuat sesuatu, atau tidak berbuat sesuatu, yang dapat dinilai dengan uang.
Pasal 5
Ayat (1)
Dalam akta Jaminan Fidusia selain dicantumkan hari dan tanggal, juga dicantumkan mengenai waktu (jam) pembuatan akta tersebut.
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas.
Pasal 6
Huruf a
Yang dimaksud dengan “identitas” dalam Pasal ini adalah meliputi nama lengkap, agama, tempat tinggal, atau tempat kedudukan, tempat dan tanggal lahir, jenis kelamin, status perkawinan, dan pekerjaan.
Huruf b
Yang dimaksud dengan “data perjanjian pokok” adalah mengenai macam perjanjian dan utang yang dijamin dengan fidusia.
Huruf c
Uraian mengenai Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia cukup dilakukan dengan mengidentifikasikan Benda tersebut, dan dijelaskan mengenai surat bukti kepemilikannya.
Dalam hal Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia merupakan benda dalam persediaan (inventory) yang selalu berubah-ubah dan atau tidak tetap, seperti stok bahan baku, barang jadi, atau portofolio perusahaan efek, maka dalam akta Jaminan Fidusia dicantumkan
uraian mengenai jenis, merek, kualitas dari Benda tersebut. Huruf d
Cukup jelas
Huruf e
Cukup jelas
Pasal 7
Huruf a
Cukup jelas
Huruf b
Utang yang akan timbul di kemudian hari yang dikenal dengan istilah “kontinjen”, misalnya utang yang timbul dari pembayaran yang dilakukan oleh kreditor untuk kepentingan debitor dalam rangka pelaksanaan garansi bank.
Huruf c
Utang yang dimaksud dalam ketentuan ini adalah utang bunga atas pinjaman pokok dan biaya lainnya yang jumlahnya dapat ditentukan kemudian.
Pasal 8
Ketentuan ini dimaksudkan sebagai pemberian fidusia kepada lebih dari satu
Penerima Fidusia dalam rangka pembiayaan kredit konsorsium.
Yang dimaksud dengan “kuasa” adalah orang yang mendapat kuasa khusus dari penerima Fidusia untuk mewakili kepentingannya dalam penerimaan Jaminan Fidusia dari Pemberi Fidusia.
Yang dimaksud dengan “wakil” adalah orang yang secara hukum dianggap mewakili Penerima Fidusia dalam penerimaan Jaminan Fidusia, misalnya, Wali Amanat dalam mewakili kepentingan pemegang obligasi.
Pasal 9
Ketentuan dalam Pasal ini penting dipandang dan segi komersial.
Ketentuan ini secara tegas membolehkan Jaminan Fidusia mencakup Benda yang diperoleh di kemudian hari. Hal ini menunjukkan Undang-undang ini menjamin fleksibilitas yang berkenaan dengan hal ihwal Benda yang dapat dibebani Jaminan Fidusia bagi pelunasan utang.
Pasal 10
Huruf a
Yang dimaksud dengan “hasil dari Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia” adalah segala sesuatu yang diperoleh dan Benda yang dibebani Jaminan Fidusia.
Huruf b
Ketentuan dalam huruf b ini dimaksudkan untuk menegaskan apabila Benda ini diasuransikan, maka klaim asuransi tersebut merupakan hak Penerima Fidusia.
Pasal 11
Pendaftaran Benda yang dibebani dengan Jaminan Fidusia dilaksanakan di tempat kedudukan Pemberi Fidusia, dan pendaftarannya mencakup benda,
baik yang berada di dalam maupun di luar wilayah negara Republik Indonesia untuk memenuhi asas publisitas, sekaligus merupakan jaminan kepastian terhadap kreditor lainnya mengenai Benda yang telah dibebani Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 12
Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia merupakan bagian dalam lingkungan Departemen
Kehakiman dan bukan institusi yang mandiri atau unit pelaksana teknis.
Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia didirikan untuk pertama kali di Jakarta dan secara bertahap, sesuai keperluan, di ibukota propinsi di seluruh wilayah negara Republik Indonesia.
Dalam hal Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia belum didirikan di tiap daerah Tingkat
II maka wilayah kerja Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia di ibukota propinsi meliputi seluruh daerah Tingkat II yang berada di lingkungan wilayahnya.
Pendirian Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia di daerah Tingkat II, dapat disesuaikan dengan Undang-undang Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 tentang Pemerintah Daerah.
Pasal 13
Ayat (1)
Cukup jelas. Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas. Ayat (3)
Ketentuan ini dimaksudkan agar Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia tidak
melakukan penilaian terhadap kebenaran yang dicantumkan dalam pernyataan Pendaftaran Jaminan Fidusia, akan tetapi hanya
melakukan pengecekan data sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 13
ayat (2). Ayat (4)
Cukup jelas.
Pasal 14
Ayat (1)
Cukup jelas.
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas. Ayat (3)
Ketentuan ini mengurangi berlakunya Pasal 613 Kitab Undang-undang
Hukum Perdata bagi pengalihan piutang atas nama dan kebendaan tak berwujud lainnya.
Pasal 15
Ayat (1)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (2)
Dalam ketentuan ini, yang dimaksud dengan “kekuatan eksekutorial” adalah langsung dapat dilaksanakan tanpa melalui pengadilan dan bersifat final serta mengikat para pihak untuk melaksanakan putusan tersebut.
Ayat (3)
Salah satu ciri Jaminan Fidusia adalah kemudahan dalam pelaksanaan eksekusinya yaitu apabila pihak Pemberi Fidusia cidera janji. Oleh karena itu, dalam Undang-undang ini dipandang perlu diatur secara khusus tentang eksekusi Jaminan Fidusia melalui lembaga parate eksekusi.
Pasal 16
Ayat (1)
Perubahan mengenai hal-hal yang tercantum dalam Sertifikat Jaminan
Fidusia, harus diberitahukan kepada para pihak.
Perubahan ini tidak perlu dilakukan dengan akta notaris dalam rangka efisiensi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dunia usaha.
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas
Pasal 17
Fidusia ulang oleh Pemberi Fidusia, baik debitor maupun penjamin pihak ketiga, tidak dimungkinkan atas Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia
karena hak kepemilikan atas Benda tersebut telah beralih kepada Penerima
Fidusia.
Pasal 18
Cukup jelas
Pasal 19
“Pengalihan hak atas piutang” dalam ketentuan ini dikenal dengan istilah “cessie” yakni pengalihan piutang yang dilakukan dengan akta otentik atau akta di bawah tangan. Dengan adanya cessie ini, maka segala hak dan kewajiban Penerima Fidusia lama beralih kepada Penerima Fidusia baru dan
pengalihan hak atas piutang tersebut diberitahukan kepada Pemberi Fidusia.
Pasal 20
Ketentuan ini mengakui prinsip “droit de suite” yang telah merupakan bagian dari peraturan perundang-undangan Indonesia dalam kaitannya dengan hak mutlak atas kebendaan (in rem).
Pasal 21
Ketentuan inimenegaskan kembali bahwa Pemberi Fidusia dapat
mengalihkan benda persediaan yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia. Namun demikian untuk menjaga kepentingan Penerima Fidusia, maka Benda yang dialihkan tersebut wajib diganti objek yang setara.
Yang dimaksud dengan “mengalihkan” antara lain termasuk menjual atau menyewakan dalam rangka kegiatan usahanya.
Yang dimaksud dengan “setara” tidak hanya nilainya tetapi juga jenisnya. Yang dimaksud dengan “cidera janji” adalah tidak memenuhi prestasi, baik yang berdasarkan perjanjian pokok, perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia, maupun perjanjian jaminan lainnya.
Pasal 22
Yang dimaksud dengan “harga pasar” adalah harga yang wajar yang berlaku
di pasar pada saat penjualan Benda tersebut, sehingga tidak mengesankan adanya penipuan dari pihak Pemberi Fidusia dalam melakukan penjualan Benda tersebut.
Pasal 23
Ayat (1)
Yang dimaksud dengan “menggabungkan” adalah penyatuan bagian- bagian dari Benda tersebut.
Yang dimaksud dengan “mencampur” adalah penyatuan Benda yang sepadan dengan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Ayat (2)
Yang dimaksud dengan “benda yang tidak merupakan benda persediaan”, misalnya mesin produksi, mobil pribadi, atau rumah pribadi yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia.
Pasal 24
Cukup jelas
Pasal 25
Ayat (1)
Sesuai dengan sifat ikutan dari Jaminan Fidusia, maka adanya Jaminan Fidusia tergantung pada adanya piutang yang dijamin pelunasannya. Apabila piutang tersebut hapus karena hapusnya utang atau karena pelepasan, maka dengan sendirinya Jaminan Fidusia yang bersangkutan menjadi hapus.
Yang dimaksud dengan “hapusnya utang” antara lain karena
pelunasan dan bukti hapusnya utang berupa keterangan yang dibuat kreditor.
Ayat (2)
Dalam hal Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia musnah dan Benda tersebut diasuransikan maka klaim asuransi akan menjadi pengganti objek Jaminan Fidusia tersebut.
Ayat (3)
Cukup jelas.
Pasal 26
Cukup jelas
Pasal 27
Ayat (1)
Hak yang didahulukan dihitung sejak tanggal pendaftaran Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fmdusia pada Kantor Pendaftaran Fidusia.
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (3)
Ketentuan dalam ayat ini berhubungan dengan ketentuan bahwa Jaminan Fidusia merupakan hak agunan atas kebendaan bagi pelunasan utang. Di samping itu, ketentuan dalam Undang-undag tentang Kepailitan menentukan bahwa Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia berada di luar kepailitan dan atau likuidasi.
Pasal 28
Cukup jelas
Pasal 29
Cukup jelas
Pasal 30
Dalam hal Pemberi Fidusia tidak menyerahkan Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia pada waktu eksekusi dilaksanakan, Penerima Fidusia berhak mengambil Benda yang menjadi objek Jaminan Fidusia dan apabila perlu
dapat meminta bantuan pihak yang berwenang.
Pasal 31
Cukup jelas
Pasal 32
Cukup jelas
Pasal 33
Cukup jelas
Pasal 34
Cukup jelas
Pasal 35
Cukup jelas
Pasal 36
Cukup jelas
Pasal 37
Ayat (1)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (2)
Cukup jelas
Ayat (3)
Berdasarkan ketentuan ayat ini, maka perjanjian Jaminan Fidusia yang tidak didaftar tidak mempunyai hak yang didahulukan (preferen) baik
di dalam maupun di luar kepailitan Jan atau likuidasi.
Pasal 38
Cukup jelas
Pasal 39
Cukup jelas
Pasal 40
Cukup jelas
Pasal 41
Cukup jelas
TAMBAHAN LEMBARAN NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 3889

-common articles-

Common articles dari Konvensi Jenewa 1949 dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu :

A. Ketentuan-ketentuan umum.
B. Ketentuan-ketentuan mengenai pelanggaran dan penyalahgunaan konvensi; dan
C. Ketentuan-ketentuan pelaksanaan dan ketentuan penutup.

A. Ketentuan-ketentuan umum

Dalam keempat Konvensi Jenewa 1949, akan ditemukan pasal-pasal kembar mengenai ketentuan umum ini. Pasal-pasal yang termasuk dalam ketentuan umum ini mengatur mengenai :

  1. Penghormatan Konvensi (Pasal 1);
  2. Berlakunya Konvensi (Pasal 2);
  3. Sengketa bersenjata yang bersifat non-internasional (Pasal 3);
  4. Orang-orang yang dilindungi (protected persons; Pasal 4);
  5. Lamanya perlindungan diberikan (Pasal 5);
  6. Persetujuan-persetujuan khusus (Pasal  6);
  7. Larangan untuk melepaskan hak (Pasal 7);
  8. Pengawasan pelaksanaan konvensi (Pasal 8);
  9. Larangan untuk mengadakan tindakan balasan (Pasal 46);
  10. Diseminasi atau penyebarluasan Hukum Humaniter (Pasal 47).

B. Ketentuan-ketentuan mengenai pelanggaran dan penyalahgunaan konvensi

  1. Ketentuan umum mengenai  sanksi pidana (Pasal 49 Konvensi I; Pasal 50 /II; 129/III; 146/IV);
  2. Ketentuan mengenai “pelanggaran-pelanggaran berat” (grave breaches) (Pasal 50/I; 51/II; 130/III; 147/IV);
  3. Ketentuan mengenai tanggung-jawab negara peserta Konvensi Jenewa dalam hal terjadi pelanggaran (Pasal 51-54/I; 52-53/II; 131-132/III; 148-149).

C. Ketentuan-ketentuan pelaksanaan dan ketentuan penutup

  1. Ketentuan mengenai berlakunya Konvensi (entry into force)
  2. Ketentuan mengenai pernyataan ikut serta dalam Konvensi (ratification);
  3. Ketentuan mengenai berakhirnya keikutsertaan suatu pihak dalam Konvensi.

Dalam Konvensi Jenewa, sengketa bersenjata yang tidak bersifat internasional (konflik/sengketa bersenjata non-internasional atau konflik internal) diatur dalam Pasal 3 ketentuan-ketentuan yang bersamaan (common articles) dari Konvensi Jenewa 1949.:

“Dalam hal pertikaian bersenjata yang tidak bersifat internasional yang berlangsung dalam wilayah salah satu Pihak Peserta Agung, tiap Pihak dalampertikaian itu akan diwajibkan untuk melaksanakan sekurang-kurangnya ketentuan-ketentuan berikut :

(1) Orang-orang yang tidak turut serta secara aktif dalam pertikaian itu, termasuk anggota-anggota angkatan perang yang telah meletakkan senjata-senjata mereka serta mereka yang tidak lagi turut serta (hors de combat) karena sakit, luka-luka, penahanan atau sebab lain apapun, dalam keadaan bagaimanapun harus diperlakukan dengan perikemanusiaan, tanpa perbedaan merugikan apapun juga yang didasarkan atas ras, warna kulit, agama atau kepercayaan, kelamin, keturunan atau kekayaan, atau setiap kriteria lain yang serupa itu.
Untuk maksud ini, maka tindakan-tindakan berikut dilarang dan tetap akan dilarang untuk dilakukan terhadap orang-orang tersebut di atas pada waktu dan di tempat-tempat apapun juga :

  • (a). tindakan kekerasan atas jiwa dan raga, terutama setiap macam pembunuhan, pengudungan, perlakuan kejam dan penganiayaan;
  • (b). penyanderaan;
  • (c). perkosaan atas kehormatan pribadi, terutama perlakuan yang menghina dan merendahkan martabat;
  • (d). menghukum dan menjalankan hukuman mati tanpa didahului keputusan yang dijatuhkan oleh suatu pengadilan yang dibentuk secara teratur, yang memberikan semua jaminan peradilan yang diakui sebagai keharusan oleh bangsa-bangsa yang beradab.

(2). Yang luka dan sakit harus dikumpulkan dan dirawat.

Sebuah badan humaniter tidak berpihak, seperti Komite Internasional Palang Merah, dapat menawarkan jasa-jasanya kepada pihak-pihak dalam pertikaian.

Para pihak dalam pertikaian, selanjutnya harus berusaha untuk menjalankan dengan jalan persetujuan-persetujuan khusus, semua atau sebagian dari ketentuan lain dari Konvensi ini.

Pelaksanaan ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut di atas tidak akan mempengaruhi kedudukan hukum pihak-pihak dalam pertikaian”.

Dengan melihat ketentuan Pasal 3 tersebut di atas, ada beberapa hal yang dapat kita ketahui :

  • Konvensi Jenewa menyatakan suatu konflik bersenjata non-internasional dengan perumusan kalimat masih kabur maknanya, yakni dengan frasa ” Dalam hal pertikaian bersenjata yang tidak bersifat internasional“.  Formulasi yang sangat kabur ini, tentu saja, menimbulkan tafsiran yang sangat luas, sehingga dapat menimbulkan berbagai pertanyaan seperti : bagaimana sifat permusuhan; haruskah permusuhan tersebut hanya terjadi antara angkatan bersenjata pemerintah dan angkatan bersenjata pemberontak saja, atau haruskah angkatan bersenjata pemberontak ini telah dapat mengawasi suatu wilayah tertentu ? Apakah sebenarnya pengertian ‘tidak bersifat internasional’ dalam praktek ? Bagaimana bila terjadi intervensi asing ? dan lain-lain. Dengan kata lain, Pasal 3 belum merumuskan suatu keadaan atau situasi obyektif, juga belum memberikan kriteria obyektif mengenai apa yang dimaksud dengan “pertikaian bersenjata yang tidak bersifat internasional“.  Hal ini merupakan kelemahan Pasal 3, namun sekaligus juga merupakan keuntungan karena Pasal 3 tidak menolak adanya penafsiran yang luas.
  • Ayat (1) Pasal 3 ini mencerminkan adanya perlindungan hukum yang begitu besar terhadap golongan yang disebut dengan “hors de combat”; juga mencerminkan bahwa setiap ketentuan Konvensi sekaligus mengakomodir asas-asas hukum humaniter, dalam hal ini asas kesatriaan dan asas kemanusiaan. Orang yang sudah tidak mampu lagi untuk melakukan serangan, menurut ayat ini, harus dilindungi hak-haknya serta diperlakukan secara manusiawi. Seorang kombatan yang turun di medan pertempuran memang dapat dibunuh, akan tetapi ketika ia menjadi “hors de combat”, maka ia mendapatkan perlindungan hukum; termasuk tidak boleh dibunuh atau dianiaya. Seorang prajurit sejati, pada hakekatnya adalah prajurit yang menjunjung tinggi prinsip kesatriaan; jika ia menemui musuh dalam keadaan siaga, bersenjata dan masih melakukan perlawanan, maka tentu saja ia harus  bertempur dan jika perlu membunuh prajurit musuh. Sebaliknya, jika musuh tersebut sudah tidak berdaya, maka jiwa ksatria melarangnya untuk menganiaya, membunuh atau melakukan tindakan-tindakan yang tidak manusiawi, karena memang pada hakekatnya musuh tersebut sudah benar-benar tidak mampu melakukan serangan lagi dan dapat ditaklukkan. Anggota militer mempunyai kehormatan militer dan sikap ksatria, sehingga sepatutnya tunduk pada aturan ini. Sebaliknya, perlakuan yang tidak manusiawi, penganiayaan atau pembunuhan tanpa melalui proses peradilan, hanya mencerminkan tindakan premanisme dari seseorang yang berjiwa kerdil dan primitif, dan sudah seharusnya hal ini tidak tercermin dalam tingkah laku para prajurit yang merupakan organ resmi negara . Jadi, peperangan memang terlihat kejam; namun jika diperhatikan, ada sisi-sisi kemanusiaan dalam setiap ketentuannya.
  • Jika kita lihat lagi mengenai hak-hak apa saja yang harus dijamin atas golongan orang-orang yang termasuk dalam “hors de combat ini”, maka ketentuan ayat (1) butir (a) hingga (d) mencerminkan hak-hak yang paling mendasar bagi setiap insan manusia, termasuk di medan perang. Ketentuan tersebut, nyaris serupa dengan hak-hak asasi manusia yang paling mendasar dan fundamental, yakni intisari HAM atau sering disebut dengan istilah “hak-hak yang tidak dapat diganggu-gugat” (non-derogable rights), yang harus dijamin dalam keadaan apapun juga, termasuk dalam keadaan perang.
  • Ayat (2) Pasal 3 ini sangat mencerminkan asas kemanusiaan, walaupun dalam keadaan yang genting (peperangan). Ketentuan untuk memperlakukan secara manusiawi terhadap “hors de combat” yang ada dalam ayat (1), perlu pula dilengkapi dengan ketentuan ayat(2) yang menyatakan bahwa mereka harus pula dirawat, jika perlu dengan bantuan organisasi-organisasi kemanusiaan lain yang tidak berpihak.
  • Demikian pula, jika sebagian orang berfikir “ah, kalau terjadi konflik internal maka yang berlaku hanya satu pasal saja; yakni Pasal3 Konvensi Jenewa”, maka sebenarnya tidak selalu demikian. Jika kita perhatikan ayat (2) ini, maka pelaksanaan sebagian maupun ketentuan lain dalam Konvensi, dapat dilakukan oleh para pihak dengan suatu persetujuan khusus. Jadi, harus dipahami bahwa walaupun hanya Pasal 3 saja dari Konvensi Jenewa yang berlaku dalam suatu konflik yang bersifat non-internasional, namun dengan persetujuan-persetujuan khusus antara para pihak, maka mereka dapat bersepakat untuk menerapkan bagian-bagian lainnya dari Konvensi Jenewa. Contoh aktual mengenai hal ini adalah dibentuknya suatu persetujuan khusus antara pihak-pihak yang bersengketa pada konflik di bekas Yugoslavia. Dalam perjanjian khusus tersebut disepakati bahwa para pihak menyetujui untuk memberlakukan Konvensi Jenewa ke-III tentang perlakuan terhadap tawanan perang, dalam konflik tersebut.
  • Sedangkan kalimat terakhir dari ayat (2), yang berbunyi “Pelaksanaan ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut di atas tidak akan mempengaruhi kedudukan hukum pihak-pihak dalam pertikaian”, memberikan suatu jaminan kepada pemerintah yang sah, bahwa apabila mereka memberlakukan Pasal 3 ini terhadap pemberontak, maka hal tersebut tidak merubah status hukum pemberontak (insurgent) menjadi belligerent. Hal ini ditegaskan dalam kalimat yang terakhir, karena praktek negara menunjukkan bahwa pada umumnya pemerintah yang sah berusaha untuk mengingkari Pasal 3 Konvensi Jenewa karena menganggap bahwa pemberlakukan Pasal 3 akan mengubah status pemberontak menjadi belligerent, atau sebagai suatu subyek hukum internasional. Dengan ayat(2) alinea terakhir dalam Pasal ini, maka ketakutan tersebut tidak perlu terjadi. Hal ini merupakan perkembangan hukum yang sangat progresif, karena pemberontakan yang merupakan masalah dalam negeri suatu negara dan mewajibkan negara lain untuk tidak turut campur dalam masalah itu (prinsip non-intervensi), namun ternyata pengaturannya (walaupun secara umum) terdapat di dalam suatu perjanjian internasional, yakni dalam Konvensi Jenewa 1949.

ARBITRASE (pengertian dan dasar hukum)

PENGERTIAN DAN DASAR HUKUM ARBITRASE

1. Pengertian Arbitrase

Istilah arbitrase berasal dari kata “Arbitrare” (bahasa Latin) yang berarti “kekuasaan untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu perkara menurut kebijaksanaan”.

Secara singkat sumber Hukum Arbitrase di Indonesia adalah sebagai berikut:

A. Pasal II Aturan Peralihan UUD 1945

Pasal II Aturan Peralihan UUD 1945 menentukan bahwa “semua peraturan yang ada masih langsung berlaku, selama belum diadakan yang baru menurut UUD ini.” Demikian pula halnya dengan HIR yang diundang pada zaman Koloneal Hindia Belanda masih tetap berlaku, karena hingga saat ini belum diadakan pengantinya yang baru sesuai dengan Peraturan Peralihan UUD 1945 tersebut.

B. Pasal 377 HIR

Ketentuan mengenai arbitrase dalam HIR tercantum dalam Pasal 377 HIR atau Pasal 705 RBG yang menyatakan bahwa :

“Jika orang Indonesia atau orang Timur Asing menghendaki perselisihan mereka diputus oleh juru pisah atau arbitrase maka mereka wajib memenuhi peraturan pengadilan yang berlaku bagi orang Eropah”. Sebagaimana dijelaskan di atas, peraturan pengadilan yang berlaku bagi Bangsa Eropah yang dimaksud Pasal 377 HIR ini adalah semua ketentuan tentang Acara Perdata yang diatur dalam RV.

C. Pasal 615 s/d 651 RV

Peraturan mengenai arbitrase dalam RV tercantum dalam Buku ke Tiga Bab

Pertama Pasal 615 s/d 651 RV, yang meliputi :

- Persetujuan arbitrase dan pengangkatan para arbiter (Pasal 615 s/d 623 RV)

- Pemeriksaan di muka arbitrase (Pasal 631 s/d 674 RV)

- Putusan Arbitrase (Pasal 631 s/d 674 RV)

- Upaya-upaya terhadap putusan arbitrase (Pasal 641 s/d 674 RV)

- Berakhirnya acara arbitrase (Pasal 648-651 RV)

D. Penjelasan Pasal 3 ayat (1) UU No. 14 /1970

Setelah Indonesia merdeka, ketentuan yang tegas memuat pengaturan lembaga arbitrase dapat kita temukan dalam memori penjelasan Pasal 3 ayat (1) UU No. 14 tahun 1970 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan Pokok Kekuasaan Kehakiman, yang menyatakan “ Penyelesaian perkara diluar pengadilan atas dasar perdamaian atau melalui wasit atau arbitrase tetap diperbolehkan”.

E. Pasal 80 UU NO. 14/1985

Satu-satunya undang-undang tentang Mahkamah Agung yang berlaku di Indonesia yaitu UU No. 14/1985, sama sekali tidak mengatur mengenai arbitrase. Ketentuan peralihan yang termuat dalam Pasal 80 UU No. 14/1985, menentukan bahwa semua peraturan pelaksana yang telah ada mengenai Mahkamah Agung, dinyatakan tetap berlaku sepanjang peraturan tersebut tidak bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang Mahkamah Agung ini. Dalam hal ini kita perlu merujuk kembali UU No. 1/1950 tentang Susunan Kekuasaan dan Jalan Pengadilan Mahkamah Agung Indonesia. UU No. 1/1950 menunjuk Mahkamah Agung sebagai pengadilan yang memutus dalam tingkat yang kedua atas putusan arbitrase mengenai sengketa yang melibatkan sejumlah uang lebih dari Rp. 25.000,- (Pasal 15 Jo. Pasal 108 UU No. 1/1950).

F. Pasal 22 ayat (2) dan (3) UU No. 1/1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing

Dalam hal ini Pasal 22 ayat (2) UU No. 1/1967 menyatakan:

“Jikalau di antara kedua belah pihak tercapai persetujuan mengenai jumlah, macam,dan cara pembayaran kompensasi tersebut, maka akan diadakan arbitrase yang putusannya mengikat kedua belah pihak”.

Pasal 22 ayat (3) UU No. 1/1967 :

“Badan arbitrase terdiri atas tiga orang yang dipilih oleh pemerintah dan pemilik modal masing-masing satu orang, dan orang ketiga sebagai ketuanya dipilih bersama-sama oleh pemerintah dan pemilik modal”.

G. UU No. 5/1968

yaitu mengenai persetujuan atas “Konvensi Tentang Penyelesaian Perselisihan Antara Negara dan Warga Asing Mengenai Penanaman Modal” atau sebagai ratifikasi atas “International Convention On the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States”.

Dengan undang-undang ini dinyatakan bahwa pemerintah mempunyai wewenang untuk memberikan persetujuan agar suatu perselisihan mengenai penanaman modal asing diputus oleh International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSD) di Washington.

H. Kepres. No. 34/1981

Pemerintah Indonesia telah mengesahkan “Convention On the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards” disingkat New York Convention (1958), yaitu Konvensi Tentang Pengakuan dan Pelaksanaan Putusan Arbitrase Luar Negeri, yang diadakan pada tanggal 10 Juni 1958 di Nww York, yang diprakarsaioleh PBB.

I. Peraturan Mahkamah Agung No. 1/1990

Selanjutnya dengan disahkannya Konvensi New York dengan Kepres No. 34/1958 , oleh Mahkamah Agung di keluarkan PERMA No. 1/1990 tentang Tata Cara Pelaksanaan Putusan Arbitrase Asing, pada tanggal 1 maret 1990 yang berlaku sejak tanggal di keluarkan.

J. UU No. 30/1999

Sebagai ketentuan yang terbaru yang mengatur lembaga arbitrase, maka
pemerintah mengeluarkan UU No. 30/1999 tentang Arbitrase dan Alternatif
Penyelesaian Sengketa, pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1999 yang dimaksudkan untuk mengantikan peraturan mengenai lembaga arbitrase yang tidak sesuai lagi dengan perkembangan zaman dan kemajuan perdagangan internasional. Oleh karena itu ketentuan mengenai arbitrase sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 615 s/d 651 RV, Pasal 377 HIR, dan Pasal 705 RBG, dinyatakan tidak berlaku lagi. Dengan demikian ketentuan hukum acara dari lembaga arbitrase saat ini telah mempergunakan ketentuan yang terdapat dalam UU NO. 30/1999.

Keuntungan Arbitrase

Penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase dinilai menguntungkan karena beberapa alasan sebagai berikut:
a. Kecepatan dalam proses
Suatu persetujuan arbitrase harus menetapkan jangka waktu, yaitu berapa lama perselisihan atau sengketa yang diajukan kepada arbitrase harus diputuskan. Apabila para pihak tidak menentukan jangka waktu tertentu, lamanya waktu penyelesaian akan ditentukan oleh majelis arbitrase berdasarkan aturan-aturan arbitrase yang dipilih. [Pasal 31 ayat (3) menyebutkan: “Dalam hal para pihak telah memilih acara arbitrase … harus ada kesepakatan mengenai ketentuan jangka waktu dan tempat diselenggarakan arbitrase dan apabila jangka waktu dan tempat arbitrase tidak ditentukan, arbiter atau majelis arbitrase yang akan menentukan.”)

Demikian pula, putusan arbitrase bersifat final dan mengikat para pihak, sehingga tidak dimungkinkan upaya hukum banding atau kasasi. Dalam Pasal 53 UU No. 30/1999 disebutkan bahwa terhadap putusan arbitrase tidak dapat dilakukan perlawanan atau upaya hukum apa pun. Sedangkan dalam Pasal 60 secara tegas disebutkan: “Putusan arbitrase bersifat final dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap dan mengikat para pihak.”

Catatan: Sebelum berlakunya UU No. 30/1999, pihak yang kalah berhak mengajukan banding atas putusan arbitrase kepada Mahkamah Agung, yang memeriksa fakta-fakta dan penerapan hukumnya. Dengan demikian, putusan arbitrase tidak bersifat final dan mengikat para pihak sampai permohonan banding tersebut ditolak. (Lihat Pasal 641 Rv juncto Pasal 15 dan 108 Undang-Undang No. 1 Tahun 1950 tentang Mahkamah Agung.)
Selain itu, dalam pengaturan internasional, Pasal 35 ayat (1) Ketentuan-ketentuan Arbitrase UNCITRAL menyebutkan bahwa: An arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, shall be recognized as binding and,… shall be enforced. Jadi, putusan arbitrase bersifat final dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap dan mengikat para pihak, tidak peduli di negara mana pun ia dijatuhkan.

b. Pemeriksaan ahli di bidangnya
Untuk memeriksa dan memutus perkara melalui arbitrase, para pihak diberi kesempatan untuk memilih ahli yang memiliki pengetahuan yang mendalam dan sangat menguasai hal-hal yang disengketakan. Dengan demikian, pertimbangan-pertimbangan yang diberikan dan putusan yang dijatuhkan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan kualitasnya. Hal itu dimungkinkan karena selain ahli hukum, di dalam badan arbitrase juga terdapat ahli-ahli lain dalam berbagai bidang misalnya ahli perbankan, ahli leasing, ahli pemborongan, ahli pengangkutan udara, laut, dan lain-lain.

Catatan: Sebagaimana diketahui dalam pemeriksaan persidangan di pengadilan ada kemungkinan hakim tidak menguasai suatu perkara yang sifatnya sangat teknis. Hal ini disebabkan sebagian besar hakim di pengadilan memiliki latar belakang yang sama, yakni berasal dari bidang hukum, sehingga mereka hanya memiliki pengetahuan yang bersifat umum (general knowledge) di bidang lainnya dan sulit bagi mereka untuk memahami hal-hal teknis yang rumit lainnya.

c. Sifat konfidensialitas
Pemeriksaan sengketa oleh majelis arbitrase selalu dilakukan dalam persidangan tertutup, dalam arti tidak terbuka untuk umum, dan putusan yang dijatuhkan dalam sidang tertutup tersebut hampir tidak pernah dipublikasikan. Dengan demikian, penyelesaian melalui arbitrase diharapkan dapat menjaga kerahasiaan para pihak yang bersengketa. Dalam Pasal 27 UU No. 30/1999 disebutkan bahwa: “Semua pemeriksaan sengketa oleh arbiter atau majelis arbitrase dilakukan secara tertutup.”

Catatan: Berbeda dari arbitrase, proses pemeriksaan dan putusan di pengadilan harus dilakukan dalam persidangan yang terbuka untuk umum. Proses yang bersifat terbuka dapat merugikan para pihak yang bersengketa karena rahasia (bisnis) mereka yang seharusnya tertutup rapat diketahui oleh masyarakat luas.

Sebagai perbandingan dapat dilihat Penjelasan UU No. 30/1999, yang menyebutkan bahwa pada umumnya lembaga arbitrase mempunyai kelebihan dibandingkan lembaga peradilan. Kelebihan tersebut antara lain adalah sebagai berikut:
a. kerahasiaan sengketa para pihak dijamin;
b. keterlambatan yang diakibatkan karena hal prosedural dan administratif dapat dihindari;
c. para pihak dapat memilih arbiter yang menurut keyakinannya mempunyai pengetahuan, pengalaman, serta latar belakang yang cukup mengenai masalah yang disengketakan, jujur, dan adil;
d. para pihak dapat menentukan pilihan hukum untuk menyelesaikan masalahnya serta proses dan tempat penyelenggaraan arbitrase; dan
e. putusan arbiter merupakan putusan yang mengikat para pihak dan dengan melalui tata cara (prosedur) sederhana saja ataupun langsung dapat dilaksanakan.

Penjelasan UU No. 30/1999 menegaskan bahwa pada kenyataannya apa yang disebutkan di atas tidak semuanya benar, sebab di negara-negara tertentu proses peradilan dapat lebih cepat daripada proses arbitrase. Satu satunya kelebihan arbitrase dibandingkan pengadilan adalah sifat kerahasiaannya karena putusannya tidak dipublikasikan. Selanjutnya, di dalam Penjelasan disebutkan bahwa penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase masih lebih diminati daripada litigasi, terutama untuk kontrak bisnis yang bersifat internasional.

Berdasarkan penelitian penulis tentang keefektifan penggunaan arbitrase dapat disimpulkan bahwa penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase selalu didasarkan pada asumsi-asumsi sebagai berikut:

a. lebih cepat, karena putusannya bersifat final dan mengikat, sehingga menghemat waktu, biaya, dan tenaga;
b. dilakukan oleh ahli di bidangnya, karena arbitrase menyediakan para pakar dalam bidang tertentu yang menguasai persoalan yang disengketakan, sehingga hasilnya (putusan arbitrase) dapat lebih dipertanggungjawabkan; dan
c. kerahasiaan terjamin karena proses pemeriksaan dan putusannya tidak terbuka untuk umum, sehingga kegiatan usaha tidak terpengaruh.

Dengan beberapa alasan tersebut, arbitrase lebih disukai dan dinilai lebih efektif daripada penyelesaian sengketa di pengadilan. Namun demikian, selain beberapa keuntungan atas pilihan penggunaan arbitrase tersebut, arbitrase memiliki beberapa kelemahan yang perlu mendapat perhatian dari para pihak yang bersengketa dan penasehat hukumnya, para praktisi hukum lainnya, dan dari kalangan akademisi, termasuk ahli arbitrase. Jika beberapa kelemahan tersebut (lihat uraian kelemahan arbitrase) tidak diantisipasi, maka hal itu dapat membuat arbitrase kehilangan baik daya guna (keefektifan) maupun hasil guna (efisiensi)-nya.

Kelemahan Arbitrase

Beberapa faktor yang merupakan kelemahan arbitrase adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Hanya untuk para pihak bona fide
Arbitrase hanya bermanfaat untuk para pihak atau pengusaha yang bona fide (bonafid) atau jujur dan dapat dipercaya. Para pihak yang bonafid adalah mereka yang memiliki kredibilitas dan integritas, artinya patuh terhadap kesepakatan, pihak yang dikalahkan harus secara suka rela melaksanakan putusan arbitrase. Sebaliknya, jika ia selalu mencari-cari peluang untuk menolak melaksanakan putusan arbitrase, perkara melalui arbitrase justru akan memakan lebih banyak biaya, bahkan lebih lama daripada proses di pengadilan. Misalnya, pengusaha yang dikalahkan tidak setuju dengan suatu putusan arbitrase, maka ia dapat melakukan berbagai cara untuk mendapatkan stay of execution (penundaan pelaksanaan putusan) dengan membawa perkaranya ke pengadilan.

Catatan: Sering ditemui di dalam praktik bahwa para pihak, walaupun mereka telah memuat klausul arbitrase dalam perjanjian bisnisnya, tetap saja mereka mengajukan perkaranya ke pengadilan. Anehnya, meskipun telah terdapat klausul arbitrase di dalam perjanjian, masih ada pengadilan negeri yang menerima gugatan perkara tersebut. (Padahal, dalam Pasal 11 ayat (2) disebutkan bahwa: “Pengadilan Negeri wajib menolak dan tidak akan campur tangan di dalam suatu penyelesaian sengketa yang telah ditetapkan melalui arbitrase…”)

b. Ketergantungan mutlak pada arbiter
Putusan arbitrase selalu tergantung pada kemampuan teknis arbiter untuk memberikan putusan yang tepat dan sesuai dengan rasa keadilan para pihak. Meskipun arbiter memiliki keahlian teknis yang tinggi, bukanlah hal yang mudah bagi majelis arbitrase untuk memuaskan dan memenuhi kehendak para pihak yang bersengketa. Pihak yang kalah akan mengatakan bahwa putusan arbitrase tidak adil, demikian pula sebaliknya (pihak yang menang akan mengatakan putusan tersebut adil). Ketergantungan secara mutlak terhadap para arbiter dapat merupakan suatu kelemahan karena substansi perkara dalam arbitrase tidak dapat diuji kembali (melalui proses banding).

Catatan: Meskipun semakin banyak ahli arbitrase yang mempertanyakan kewenangan mutlak arbiter serta putusannya yang bersifat final dan mengikat, penulis tidak sependapat; dan tidak melihat hal itu sebagai suatu kelemahan. Artinya, itu merupakan risiko yang seharusnya telah diantisipasi oleh para pihak, dan risiko tersebut harus diterima sejak awal ketika mereka memilih lembaga arbitrase. Oleh karena itulah para pihak diperkenankan untuk memilih sendiri arbiter (yang terbaik dan paling menguntungkan dirinya) yang akan menangani sengketa mereka.

c. Tidak ada preseden putusan terdahulu
Putusan arbitrase dan seluruh pertimbangan di dalamnya bersifat rahasia dan tidak dipublikasikan. Akibatnya, putusan tersebut bersifat mandiri dan terpisah dengan lainnya, sehingga tidak ada legal precedence atau keterikatan terhadap putusan-putusan arbitrase sebelumnya. Artinya, putusan-putusan arbitrase atas suatu sengketa terbuang tanpa manfaat, meskipun di dalamnya mengandung argumentasi-argumentasi berbobot dari para arbiter terkenal di bidangnya.
Catatan: Secara teori hilangnya precedence tersebut juga dapat berakibat timbulnya putusan-putusan yang saling berlawanan atas penyelesaian sengketa serupa di masa yang akan datang. Hal itu akan mengurangi kepastian hukum dan bertentangan dengan asas similia similibus, yaitu untuk perkara serupa diputuskan sama.

d. Masalah putusan arbitrase asing
Penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase internasional memiliki hambatan sehubungan dengan pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusannya. Kesulitan itu menjadi masalah yang sangat penting karena biasanya di negara pihak yang kalah terdapat harta yang harus dieksekusi. Oleh karena itu, berhasil tidaknya penyelesaian sengketa melalui arbitrase berkaitan erat dengan dapat tidaknya putusan arbitrase tersebut dilaksanakan di negara dari pihak yang dikalahkan.

Copyright © 2010. Posted by Teddy Indra M .

Pengaturan Arbitrase Sebelum UU No. 30/1999

Dalam peraturan perundang-undangan di Indonesia, sebelum berlakunya UU No. 30/1999, ketentuan-ketentuan tentang arbitrase tercantum dalam Pasal 615 s.d. Pasal 651 dari Reglement op de Rechtsvordering (Rv), yang merupakan Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Acara Perdata (selanjutnya disingkat KUHA Perdata) untuk penduduk Indonesia yang berasal dari Golongan Eropa atau yang disamakan dengan mereka.

Pada masa pemerintahan kolonial Belanda dikenal pembagian tiga kelompok penduduk dengan sistem hukum dan lingkungan peradilan yang berbeda, yaitu untuk Golongan Bumiputera (penduduk pribumi) berlaku hukum Adat dengan pengadilan Landraad dan hukum acaranya Reglemen Indonesia yang Diperbaharui (Het Herziene Indonesich Reglement yang disingkat HIR), dan untuk Golongan Timur Asing dan Eropa berlaku Burgerlijke Wetboek atau BW (KUH Perdata), dan Wetboek van Koophandel atau WvK (Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Dagang) dengan hukum acaranya Rv.

Sejak kemerdekaan 1945 sampai saat ini, Indonesia masih menggunakan BW dan WvK dalam hukum positifnya. Sehubungan dengan hal itu pendapat Peter J. Burns (di dalam Abstract bukunya) yang mempertanyakan pembedaan konvensional antara Timur dan Barat sangat menarik untuk dikaji. Menurutnya telah terjadi ironi dalam perjuangan panjang bangsa Indonesia untuk memisahkan diri dari Belanda karena setelah merdeka identitas bangsa Indonesia justru dibentuk oleh ide-ide Belanda, secara asli, daripada oleh kepribumiannya sendiri. Identitas tersebut (termasuk dalam sistem hukum) berakar dari Eropa daratan.

Catatan: Walaupun aturan-aturan hukum acara perdata yang terdapat dalam Rv tidak dijumpai dalam HIR, ia kemudian menjadi bagian dari peraturan perundang-undangan tentang hukum acara perdata setelah Indonesia merdeka.

Selanjutnya, ketentuan arbitrase juga (secara implisit) terdapat dalam Pasal 377 HIR dan Pasal 705 Reglemen Acara untuk Daerah Luar Jawa dan Madura (Rechtsreglement Buitengewesten yang disingkat RBg). Dalam Pasal 377 HIR dan Pasal 705 RBg disebutkan bahwa: “Jika orang Indonesia atau orang Timur Asing menghendaki perselisihan mereka diputus oleh juru pisah maka mereka wajib memenuhi peraturan pengadilan yang berlaku bagi orang Eropa.”

Dari kedua pasal tersebut dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut:
a. para pihak yang bersengketa berhak menyelesaikan sengketa mereka melalui juru pisah atau arbitrase;
b. juru pisah atau arbitrase diberi kewenangan hukum untuk menjatuhkan putusan atas perselisihan (sengketa) yang timbul; dan
c. arbiter dan para pihak memiliki kewajiban untuk menggunakan ketentuan pengadilan bagi golongan Eropa.

Pasal 377 HIR dan 705 RBg memberi peluang bagi para pihak membawa sengketa mereka di luar pengadilan untuk diselesaikan. Mengingat HIR dan RBg tidak mengatur arbitrase lebih jauh lagi, Pasal 377 HIR dan 705 RBg menunjuk ketentuan-ketentuan dalam Rv yang berlaku bagi golongan Eropa dengan tujuan untuk menghindari rechts vacuum (kekosongan hukum). Peraturan pengadilan yang berlaku bagi orang Eropa sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal-pasal tersebut adalah semua ketentuan acara perdata yang diatur dalam Rv, yaitu dalam Buku Ketiga Bab I (dari Pasal 615 s.d. Pasal 651).

Ketentuan Pasal 615 s.d. Pasal 651 Rv mengatur hal-hal sebagai berikut:
1. Pasal 615 s.d. 623 Rv: Perjanjian arbitrase dan pengangkatan para arbiter.
2. Pasal 624 s.d. 630 Rv: Pemeriksaan di muka arbitrase.
3. Pasal 631 s.d. 640 Rv: Putusan arbitrase.
4. Pasal 641 s.d. 647 Rv: Upaya-upaya atas putusan arbitrase.
5. Pasal 648 s.d. 651 Rv: Berakhirnya acara arbitrase.

Mengingat pesatnya perkembangan dunia usaha dan lalu lintas perdagangan nasional dan internasional serta perkembangan hukum pada umumnya, ketentuan-ketentuan yang terdapat dalam Rv sebagai pedoman arbitrase dinilai sudah tidak sesuai lagi. Misalnya, dalam Rv tidak diatur tentang pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrase asing yang saat ini telah menjadi kebutuhan ”sehari-hari” dalam kegiatan bisnis internasional.

Masalah-masalah lain yang dinilai tidak sesuai lagi dalam Rv contohnya adalah perjanjian arbitrase tidak harus tertulis (Pasal 615 ayat 3), diizinkannya banding ke Mahkamah Agung atas putusan arbitrase (Pasal 641 ayat 1), larangan bagi wanita untuk menjadi arbiter (Pasal 617 ayat 2), dan lain-lain. Semua itu bertentangan dengan kecenderungan dalam perkembangan hukum modern saat ini. Dengan demikian, perubahan yang bersifat filosofis dan substantif merupakan suatu conditio sine qua non.

suaka-HI

suaka

Kata suaka sebenarnya berasal dari bahasa Yunani, yaitu “asylon” atau “asylum” dalam bahasa latin, yang artinya tempat yang tidak dapat dilanggar di mana seseorang yang dikejar-kejar mencari tempat berlindung.
Sementara itu, pengertian suaka menurut para ahli:
1.Dr. Kwan Sik, S.H
Suaka adalah perlindungan yang diberikan kepada individu oleh kekuasaan lain atau oleh kekuasaan dari negara lain (negara yang memberikan suaka).
2.Oppenheim Lauterpacht
Suaka adalah dalam hubungan dengan wewenang suatu negara mempunyai kedaulatan di atas teritorialnya untuk memperbolehkan seorang asing memasuki dan tinggal di dalam wilayahnya dan atas perlindungannya.
3.Charles de Visscher
Suaka adalah sesuatu kemerdekaan dari suatu negara untuk memberikan suatu suaka kepada orang yang memintanya.
4.Gracia Mora
Suaka adalah suatu perlindungan yang diberikan oleh sesuatu negara kepada orang asing yang melawan negara asalnya.
5.Prof. Dr. F. Sugeng Istanto, S.H.,
Perlindungan individu di wilayah negara asing tempat ia mencari perlindungan (kediaman asing, kapal asing, dll)
6.Sumaryo Suryokusumo
Suaka adalah di mana seorang pengungsi/ pelarian politik mencari perlidungan baik di wilayah sesuatu negara lain maupun di dalam lingkungan gedung Perwakilan Diplomatik dari suatu negara. Jika perlindungan yang dicari itu diberikan, pencari suaka itu dapat kebal dari proses hukum dari negara dimana ia berasal.

Dari apa yang telah dikatakan sebelumnya di atas, J.G. Starke menegaskan pula bahwa konsepsi suaka hukum internasional adalah mencakup 2 unsur yaitu:
1. Penaungan yang lebih daripada pelarian sementara sifatnya.
2. Pemberian perlindungan dari pembesar-pembesar yang mengusasi daerah suaka
secara aktif.
Dan dari batasan-batasan yang telah didapatkan sebelumnya tersebut, kita dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa suaka adalah suatu perlindungan yang diberikan oleh suatu negara kepada individu yang memohonkannya dengan berbagai alasan tertentu.

Sebelum berbicara mengenai suaka lebih jauh, maka lebih baik apabila kita memahami sejarah dari suaka itu sendiri, Suaka sudah ada sejak ratusan tahun bahkan ribuan tahun yang lalu, bahkan pada zaman primitif-pun suaka telah dikenal dimana-mana. Menurut Enny Soeprapto, masyarakat Yunani Purba telah mengenal lembaga yang disebut dengan “asylia” walaupun agak berbeda dengan maksud dan pengertiannya tentang “suaka” yang kita kenal sekarang.
Pada masa Yunani purba itu, agar seseorang, terutama pedagang yang berkunjung ke negara-negara lainnya, mendapatkan perlindungan, maka antara sesama negara kota di negeri itu diadakan perjanjian-perjanjian untuk maksud demikian.
Dalam perkembangannya, lembaga “asylia” itu kemudian dilengkapi dengan lembaga yang disebut “asphalia” yang tujuannya melindungi benda-benda milik orang yang dilindungi menurut lembaga “asylia”. Dalam perkembangannya sejarah kemudian mengenal kebiasaan dimana rumah-rumah ibadat seperti gereja, merupakan tempat suaka. Demikian juga dengan rumah-rumah sakit yang sering dipandang sebagai tempat suaka.
Dalam kelanjutannya pada awal masehi, suaka berarti suatu tempat pengungsian atau perlindungan terhadap orang yang peribadatannya dihina. Untuk selanjutnya, dalam waktu yang lama, suaka diberikan kepada pelarian pada umumnya terlepas dari sifat perbuatan atau tindak pidana yang dilakukan oleh pencari suaka yang menyebabkannya dikejar-kejar. Dalam waktu yang lama pelaku tindak pidana biasa-pun, yang mendapat suaka di negara lain, tidak diekstradisikan.
Keadaan ini baru berubah pada abad ke-17, dimana berbagai pakar hukum, termasuk seorang juris Belanda yang terkenal, Hugo Grotius, menggariskan perbedaan antara tindak pidana politik dan tindak pidana biasa dan menyatakan bahwa suaka hanya dapat diklaim oleh mereka yang mengalami tuntutan politis atau keagamaan. Sejak pertengahan abad ke-19 bagian besar perjanjian ekstradisi mengakui prinsip non ekstradisi bagi tindak pidana politik, kecuali yang dilakukan terhadap kepala negara.
Pada bagian sebelumnya telah disinggung bahwa pemberian suaka didasarkan pada beberapa alasan-alasan tertentu, adapun alasan-alasan itu berkaitan dengan :
Perikemanusiaan
Agama
diskriminasi
ras
politik, dll.
Adapun pemberian dari suaka atas alasan-alasan yang itu bertujuan agar para pencari suaka tersebut dapat terhindar dari penyiksaan oleh pemerintah negara asal milik pemohon. Pasal 1 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Human Or Degarding Treatment Or Punishment memberikan suatu bentuk batasan sebagai berikut :
1.For the purposes of this Convention, the term “torture” means any act by which severe
pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for act the third person has comitted, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the concent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanction.
2.This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions or wider application.
Dalam kaitannya dengan pemberian suaka, perlu diketahui bahwa pemberian suaka tidak termasuk perlindungan atas pejabat atau orang-orang yang melakukan perbuatan kriminal di negara asalnya.
Berkenaan dengan hal suaka itu, pihak yang berwenang dan terkait dalam penanganan suaka adalah :
Departemen luar negeri
Perwakilan diplomatik di luar negeri
Departemen dalam negeri
Departemen kehakiman dan HAM
Departemen sosial
Pemda
Kepolisian
Intelijen

Dan mekanismenya pemberian suaka adalah sebagai berikut :
Dalam hal diketahui adanya suatu pencari suaka yang ada di suatu daerah, pemda segera
memberitahukan deplu untuk mengkoordinasikan langkah-langkah yang diperlukan bersama dengan departemen/ lembaga pemerintahan yang terkait.
Berdasarkan dengan hasil koordinasi, deplu akan memberitahu pemerintah negara asal pencari suaka untuk memperoleh upaya penyelesaian.
Jika diperlukan, departemen yang terkait dapat membentuk satgas untuk mengupayakan koordinasi dan uapaya penanganan tingkat lanjut.
Dalam kaitannya dengan suaka, perlu dibedakan perbedaan antara pencari suaka dan pengungsi, Perbedaan itu ada pada status suakanya. Pada dasarnya kedua pihak adalah orang yang terpaksa memutuskan hubungan dengan negara asalnya karena rasa takut yang mendasar dan tidak mungkin untuk kembali lagi. Akan tetapi kedudukan dari seorang pencari suaka dikatakan demikian apabila dalam pengajuan suakanya pada negara lain yang bersangkutan belum diakui status suakanya atau apabila suakanya itu ditolak sementara pengungsi adalah status kelanjutan keberadaannya di luar negeri apabila status suakanya itu diterima oleh negara lain dengan mengacu pada ketentuan hukum internasional yang ada.

Ada 2 jenis suaka :
1.Suaka diplomatik
Dalam suaka jenis ini, tempat suaka adalah tempat-tempat yang menjadi milik atau yang digunakan untuk keperluan resmi negara pemberi suaka yang memiliki kekebalan dari yurisdiksi negara dimana tempat tersebut berada.
Yang termasuk dalam tempat-tempat di atas adalah :
– Gedung perwakilan diplomatik
– Rumah dinas kepala misi diplomatik atau konsuler
– Pangkalan militer
– Kapal atau pesawat terbang milik pemerintah yang digunakan untuk tujuan non
komersil.
2.Suaka teritorial
Tempat suaka adalah wilayah dari negara pemberi suaka itu sendiri, baik darat dan laut.

contoh surat gugatan PTUN (tigor)

15 Maret 2010

Kepada Yth:
Ketua Pengadilan TUN Jakarta
Di Jalan Ampera

Perihal : Gugatan Pembatalan Surat Keputusan Pemecatan Nomor : 10/3/2010/JKT.
Lampiran : Surat Kuasa Khusus

Dengan hormat,
Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini :
Nama                     : Rismando Hendra
Kewarganegaraan    : Indonesia

Pekerjaan               : PNS

Alamat                   : Jalan Raya Duren Tiga No. 21,Jakarta Selatan

Kuasa hukum berdasarkan surat kuasa pada tanggal 12 Maret 2010 :

Nama                     : Tigor Panjaitan, S.H, M.H.

Kewarganegaraan    : Indonesia

Pekerjaan               : Advokat

Alamat                   : Jalan Potlot 2 No 31,Jakarta Selatan

Yang selanjutnya disebut sebagai Penggugat.

Dengan ini mengajukan gugatan terhadap :

Lembaga Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, dalam hal ini diwakili oleh Badan Kepegawaian berkedudukan di Jalan Gatot Subroto,Jakarta Selatan. Selanjutnya disebut sebagai Tergugat.

Adapun gugatan ini kami ajukan berdasarkan hal-hal sebagai berikut :

Bahwa pada tanggal 10 Maret 2010 penggugat telah menerima Surat Keputusan Nomor : 10/3/2010/JKT, tentang pemecatan secara tidak hormat yang diterbitkan dan ditanda tangani oleh tergugat sesuai dengan pasal 55 Undang-Undang No. 9 Tahun 2004 bahwa gugatan ini masih dalam jangka waktu (90 Hari) yang telah ditetapkan di dalam Undang-Undang tersebut.

Penggugat telah bekerja sebagai PNS di kantor departemen pertanian selama kurang lebih 2 (dua) tahun lamanya.Tanpa pemberitahuan terlebih dahulu pada tanggal 10 maret 2010 penggugat menerima Surat Keputusan Nomor : 10/3/2010/JKT tentang pemecatan secara tidak horma,dengan alasan bahwa penggugat tidak memenuhi kewajiban yang telah dilimpahkan padanya.Padahal sebelumnya penggugat telah mengirimkan surat permohonan cuti yang telah diterima oleh tergugat pada tanggal 7 Maret 2010.Pernyataan tersebut telah melanggar asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik karena melanggar asas proporsionalitas serta melanggar asas profesionalitas sebagaimana yang diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 28 Tahun 1999 tentang penyelenggaraan Negara yang bersih dan bebas dari KKN.

Pemecatan tersebut tidak memenuhi unsur pemecatan serta melanggar asas prodesionalias dan asas proporsionalitas pemerintahan yang baik,terlebih pula penggugat tidak diberi pesangon atas pemecatan yang dilakukan oleh tergugat.

Oleh karena itu selaku kuasa hukum sesuai Surat Kuasa tanggal 12 Maret 2010 mengajukan Surat Gugatan ini,dan memohon kepada ketua pengadilan TUN Jakarta agar memberikan kelonggaran atau penundaan terhadap pelaksanaan keputusan tata usaha Negara yang sedang di gugat.Serta kami juga meminta pemberian ganti rugi sebesar Rp. 3.000.000 ,- (Tiga Juta Rupiah) serta pengembalian nama baik penggugat.

Disamping itu penggugat meminta kepada tergugat agar segera menerbitkan surat keputusan pengangkatan kembali penggugat sebagai PNS secepatnya.

Berdasarkan uraian diatas,kami meminta agar ketua pengadilan TUN Jakarta agar :

  • Memutus / mengabulkan gugatan penggugat seluruhnya;
  • Menyatakan batal / tidak sah Surat Keputusan yang dikeluarkan oleh tergugat berupa S.K Nomor : 10/3/2010/JKT;
  • Mewajibkan tergugat untuk membayar ganti rugi serta rehabilitasi;
  • Mewajibkan tergugat untuk mencabut surat keputusan nomor : 10/3/2010/JKT;
  • Menghukum tergugat untuk membayar biaya perkara;
  • Mewajibkan tergugat untuk segera menerbitkan Surat Keputusan pengangkatan kembali sesuai pasal 97 ayat (8) & (9) UU No. 5 Tahun 1986.

Selanjutnya kepada pemegang kuasa ini kami berikan wewenang penuh untuk mewakili pemberi kuasa mengahdap dan berbicara di muka persidangan TUN. Membuat dan menandatangani surat-surat yang diajukan sehubungan dengan perkara tersebut. mejawab, membantah hal-hal yang tidak benar, mengajukan bukti-bukti, serta megajukan permohonan.

Jakarta, 15 Maret 2010

Kuasa Hukum,                                                                   Penggugat,

Tigor Panjaitan, S.H, M.H                                           Rismando Hendra

——————————————————————————————-

Surat Kuasa Khusus

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini :

Rismando Hendra,warganegara Indonesia,pekerjaan PNS,alamat jalan raya durewn tiga no. 21,Jakarta Selatan.Selaku pemberi kuasa.

Dengan ini memberikan kuasa penuh kepada kantor “Tigor & Partner’s law firm”,warganegara Indonesia,pekerjaan advokat,alamat jalan potlot 2 no.31,Jakarta Selatan.Baik bertindak bersama-sama maupun sendiri-sendiri :

1. Tigor Panjaitan,S.H, M.H

2. Ibnu Aji,S.H

————————————–KHUSUS————————————–

Bertindak atas nama pemberi kuasa salam hal ini selaku penggugat untuk mengajukan gugatan atas SK nomor :10/3/2010/JKT. Tentang pemecatan secara tidak hormat melalui pengadilan TUN Jakarta terhadap badan kepegawaian yang berkedudukan di jalan gatot subroto,Jakarta Selatan yang selanjutnya disebut sebagai tergugat.

Untuk itu penerima kuasa dikuasakan untuk membuat dan menandatangani surat surat,menghadapi instansi pemerintah yang berwenang,mengambil segala tindakan yang penting guna kepentingan perkara tersebut diatas.

Kuasa ini diberikan dengan hak substitusi sebagaimana diatur dalam pasal 57 UU No. 5 Tahun 1986,serta hak retensi dan hak lainnya menurut hukum.

Jakarta,12 Maret 2010

Penerima Kuasa,                                                                Pemberi Kuasa,

METERAI Rp. 6000

Tigor Panjaitan,S.H, M.H                                                  Rismando Hendra

contoh surat kuasa-tersangka

Surat Kuasa

Yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:

Nama     : ……

Alamat  : ……

Dengan ini memberi kuasa kepada kantor “……” ,berkantor di jalan …….

baik bertindak bersama-sama maupun sendiri-sendiri :

1. ……

2. ……

3. ……

————————————–Khusus———————————————–

Untuk dan atas nama pemberi kuasa mendampingi pemberi kuasa selaku “tersangka” di polsek …… ,sesuai dengan surat perintah penahanan no . pol : …… serta surat perintah penangkapan no : …. ,tertanggal …….

Dalam perkara pidana pencurian dengan pemberatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 363 (4e) KUHP.

Kuasa diberi hak agar dapat melaksanakan/menggunakan segala upaya hukum guna kepentingan hukum pemberi kuasa

Jakarta, ………

Penerima Kuasa,                                                              Pemberi Kuasa,

(…………………..)                                                               (………………..)

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